Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 28  December 2016 p.  485-495
ANALYSIS OF ENERGY UTILISATION IN MALAYSIAN OIL PALM MECHANISATION OPERATION

Author(s): AZWAN, M B*; NORASIKIN, A L**; ABD RAHIM, S*; NORMAN, K* and SALMAH, J*

The aim of this study is to exam­ine the energy used in Malaysian oil palm plan­ta­tion oper­a­tions, espe­cially on fuel con­sump­tion in farm mech­a­ni­sa­tion prac­tices. This bench­mark study was con­ducted based on the energy input-output method­ol­ogy. The results found that 258 GJ of input energy was required to pro­duce 20 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The energy was dom­i­nated by chem­i­cal fer­tilis­ers (66%), fol­lowed by labour (21%), machin­ery (10%), fuel con­sump­tion (2%), and chem­i­cal her­bi­cide (0.5%), with an energy– use effi­ciency of 62%. A sur­vey on the fuel con­sump­tion in the mech­a­ni­sa­tion prac­tices was con­ducted at sev­eral oil palm estates. The results showed that almost 2.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1 of diesel fuel was con­sumed, which is equiv­a­lent to green­house gas (GHG) emis­sions of approx­i­mately 133 kg CO –eq ha-1 yr-1. The eco­nomic indi­ca­tor was also stud­ied to con­sider the types of energy improve­ment ini­tia­tive that should be taken. This study sug­gested util­is­ing renew­able energy and greener energy tech­nol­ogy such as elec­tric pow­er­train charged via renew­able energy source for farm mech­a­ni­sa­tion oper­a­tions. It is expected that almost 9.8 kg CO –eq ha-1 yr-1 of GHG emis­sion sav­ing and a sig­nif­i­cant amount of improve­ment in oper­a­tional costs 2 could be achieved by util­is­ing the technology.

Keywords: , ,

Author Information
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: azmil_haizam@mpob.gov.my


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