Category Archives: 1992 Vol 4 No 2

Carbon assimilation, respiration and productivity of young oil palm (Elaies guineensis)

Standing dry matter, dry matter production, leaf area, leaf photosynthetic parameters, and dark respiration rates of main plant organs were measured for palms in the third year after planting on two adjacent sites (‘dry’ and ‘wet’) differing in ground water supply. The wet site had the higher productivity.
Gross assimilation of C02(GA) was obtained (i) from the sum of dry matter production (DMP) and total respiration (R); (ii) from DMP alone, assuming this to be 1/4 of GA; and (iii) as the output of a simulation model of canopy photosynthesis. All three methods resulted in similar GA values, but some adjustment of light interception parameter values was needed to obtain realistic model output.
Respiration was partitioned into growth and maintenance components and general carbon budgets were constructed for the two sites.

The use of epoxidized palm oil products for the synthesis of radiation curable resins : several factors affecting the synthesis of epoxidized RBD palm olein acrylale (EPOLA)

Several factors such as inhibitor, cooking temperature and catalyst, which affect the preparation of epoxidized RBD palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) have been investigated. Inhibitor and high cooking temperature were respectively found to prevent gelation and shorten the cooking time, while the presence of catalyst was found to accelerate the acrylation reaction.

New non-lauric cocoa butter substitutes from palm oleins

Fairly good linoleic selectivity was obtained on the hydrogenation of palm olein products in a laboratory Parr Reactor at 180 using Nysel SP7 (0.06% as Ni) as catalyst, a pressure of 25 psig and a stirring speed of 600 r.p.m. When palm oleins with iodine values of 57, 62.5 and 66 respectively were hydrogenated to give products with a slip melting point of 34° C – 35° C, these products were soft as defined by their solid fat content (SFC) profiles. However, fractionation of these hydrogenated products gave various stearin fractions with a slip melting point of 38.5° C and yields varying from 55% to 85 percent. The SFC profiles of these stearins were comparable to those in commercial specifications for chocolate coating fat. When palm olein with IV 66 was hydrogenated to a slip melting point of 39° C, the SFC of the product was also comparable to that required for a commercial coating fat. However, dry fractionation could not remove the waxy tail from the product effectively.

Maternal inheritance of kernel size in the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis JACQ

A study of the inheritance of kernel size in the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., was conducted using the wide range of crosses between forms from the NIFOR breeding programme.

Estimates of narrow sense heritability (h2) using parent offspring regression analyses were carried out for 24 dura (D) x dura (D), 13 dura (D) selfings, 49 tenera (T) x tenera (T), 24 tenera (T) selfings, 33 dura (D) x tenera (T) and 30 tenera (T) x dura (D) crosses.


Comparable levels of estimates were obtained for mid-parent-offspring comparisons of both dura (D) and tenera (T) offsprings in all crosses except in T x D.  For individual parent-offspting comparisons in D x D, D x T and T x D crosses, the female parents determined the kernel size of both the dura and tenera offspring. This sex-determined inheritance of kernel size was not apparent in T x T crosses.


The inheritance of kernel size in the oil palm was considered to be determined by extrachromosomal gene(s) (plasmagenes) present in the endosperms of both dura and tenera fruit forms but their expression may require interaction with gene(s) present in the dura form.

Identity characteristics of Malaysian palm oil products

The identity characteristics, iodine value, slip melting point, cloud point, apparent density and refractive index were determined on a total of 244 samples representing 333,840 metric tons of refined palm oil, 238 samples representing 338,816 metric tons of palm olein, and 205 samples representing 234,108 metric tons of palm stearin. A comparison of the results with the identity characteristics of palm oil products surveyed in 1981 showed some slight changes.

Determination of flavour stability of blended cooking oils and with palm oil and rice bran oil

The flavour stability of cooking oils made with palm oil and rice bran oil was assessed by gas chromatography, Rancimat, and peroxide value during storage. Double fractionated palm olein and blended oils containing more than 70% double fractionated palm olein failed in the cold test. Double fractionated palm olein was shown to be the most stable to oxidative deterioration during storage among the oil samples tested. The more super olein incorporated in blended oil, the less storage deterioration was observed in terms of development of volatile compounds, disappearance of headspace oxygen, hydrogen evolution, induction period and peroxide value. With all blending ratios tested, the analytical methods applied correlated very well with each other, with correlation coefficients above 0.92. It was shown that any one of the determinations (formation of volatile compounds, oxygen disappearance, hydrogen evolution, induction period or peroxide value) could be used for the determination of flavour stability of blended cooking oils made with double fractionated palm olein and rice bran oil.

Palm Oil Abstracts

This article compiles abstracts of articles and papers related to palm oil/ oil palm and other oils and fats, published in journals, books, conference proceedings and other publications.