Category Archives: 1994 Vol 6 No 1

A laboratory method for inducing sporophore formation and pathogenicity in Ganoderma zonatum Murill

A technique is reported for the production of sporophores of Ganoderma zonatum Murill, in Kilner jars in four weeks, by inoculating stem dust medium (SDM) with 1 mm3 of the fungal mycelium. Basidiomycetes agar medium (BAM) was found effective for the isolation of the fungus from sporophores and infected materials. Root inoculations of fifteen-year old palms, using inoculum produced by the technique, resulted in Ganoderma disease development within three years. Two out of three seedlings planted 1 m from the base of a palm killed by Ganoderma disease were also killed by the disease within two and three years respectively.

The characteristics of indigenous entomopathogenic fungi isolated from insect pests of oil palm

Various entomogenous fungi imperfecti (Deuteromycotina) were isolated from diseased bagworms collected from several sites. Beauveria bassiana was very often isolated from Metisa plana sampled at Bukit Cloh Estate, Kapar, Selangor. It was identified as one of the most important factors in controlling the worst ever bag-worm outbreak occuring in 1991 on the estate. Paecilomyces farinosus and Aspergillus flavus together were responsible for drastic and complete mortality of Mahasena corbetti bagworm reared in PORIM outdoor and indoor insectaries in 1991. On the other hand, A. candidus is commonly associated with M. plana in indoor insectaries, and can possibly contribute to the moderately high mortality. It has been proved to be a potential agent for the control of the insect pest. A. ochraceus and A. flavicep were not often found attacking the bagworms, but the study of their pathogenicity should not be neglected. The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, morphological dimensions and importance of these entomopathogens are described.

Variation in Malaysian Dura x Pisifera planting materials. I. Bunch yield

A random sample of 99 dura x pisifera (D x P) biparental progenies from six agencies were evaluated for their yield performance. The performances of the materials from the six agencies were significantly different. On the average, the trial produced a fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of 123.57 kg/palm/year. Among the six agencies, the highest mean yield was 132.01 kg/palm/year from Agency 4. Fifteen outstanding progenies had FFB productions ranging from 138.39 to 158.17 kg/palm/year: these high yields were a result of balanced bunch number (BNO) and average bunch weight (ABWT). A large proportion of the variation – between 80 to 90 percent – was confined to variation at the seedling level. The proportion of genetic variability attributed to progeny differences was 7-20 per cent. Broad sense heritabilities (h2B) using intra-class correlation were 0.39 for ABWT, 0.19 for BNO and 0.13 for FFB

Modification of hydrogenated canola oil/palm stearin/canola oil blends by continuous enzymatic interesterification

Three fat blends containing hydrogenated canola oil (HCO), palm stearic and canola oil (45/25/30%) were interesterified in a temperature and moisture controlled packed column reactor. The moisture of the fats was controlled by a pre-column packed with Biobone (a granulated chicken bone material possessing good mechanical strength). The changes in the composition of the major triglycerides (C48, C50, C52 and C54)were followed by GLC. Both the moisture content of the Bioboxe and the flow rate significantly affected the composition of C48, C52 and C54 triglycerides during interesterification. Other factors such as the age of the Lipozyme used, and that of the Biobone, also contributed to the variation in C48, C50 and C52 composition. An increase of more than 50% of C52 in the interesterified blends indicated that a large portion of the palmitic acid residues from the palm stearin were exchanged with an 18 carbon fatty acid present in the C54 molecules of the canola products. A flow rate of ll.4 g/h and a moisture content between 13.2% and 19.2% were most effective for interesterification.

However, the higher levels of free fatty acids (FFA), monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG) detected in the interesterified blends as compared with the control blends indicated that some degree of hydrolysis also occurred; the total amounts of FFA, MG and DG were higher by 5.9% to 13.O% in the interesterified blends.

Physical properties and composition of low trans canola/palm blends modified by continuous enzymatic interesterification

Three low-trans fat blends designed for stick margarines were formulated and modified by enzymatic interesterification in a temperature and moisture controlled packed-column reactor. All the three blends contained 45%, 25% and 30% of hydrogenated canola oil (HCO), palm stearin and canola oil, respectively; the HCO (of iodine values 59.9, 56.2 and 58.7) in each of the blends was made under different hydrogenation conditions. The dropping point of the interesterified blends ranged from 38.2° to 39.8° C. Solid fat contents were 33.4%-38.3%, 18.7%-23.9% and 4.7%-6.5% at 10°, 20° and 35°C, respectively. Crystallization temperatures were 20.6°-24.6°C and all of the interesterified blends crystallized in the β’ polymorphic form in contrast to the control blends, which contained a mixture of β’ and β crystals. Their trans fatty acid contents were 12.6%-18.2% and the total trans and saturated fat contents were 45.5-49.1 percent.

Oleochemical surfactants today

The production of surfactants represents a vast area of application for technical oils and fats. The oleochemical industry is making great efforts to increase the proportion of oleochemical surfactants in the total world production of surfactants. Oleochemical surfactants have both economic and ecological advantages over products based on mineral oil. This survey discusses recent developments concerning anionic and non-ionic oleochemical surfactants, including the following: tallow alcohol sulphate, α-ester sulphonates; internal ester sulphonates from sulphoxidation of saturated fatty acid methyl esters and from S03 sulphoxation of unsaturated fatty acid esters; oleic acid sulphonates; fatty alcohol ethoxylates with narrow homologue distribution; and carbohydrate-based surfactants. The survey reveals the great potential which lies in natural fats and oils as starting materials for the development of new surfactants.

RBD palm olein in a lamellar liquid crystalline structure of mixed surfactants I. Optical pattern and DSC investigation

The optical pattern and thermal behaviour of refined, bleached and deodorized (RRD) palm olein in a lamellar liquid crystalline structure of mixed cationic surfactants were investigated using the polarizing microscope and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

The results indicate some perturbations in the amphiphilic organization and a reduction in transition enthalpy on the addition of RBD palm olein into the lamellar structure.

An econometric analysis of the Indonesian palm oil industry

The main objective of this paper is to specify and estimate a structural model of the Indonesian palm oil industry. The principal variables considered are mature planted area, production of palm oil and domestic consumption of palm oil in Indonesia. The ordinary least squares (OLS) technique is used as equations for mature area and production have a recursive structure, and because domestic consumption of palm oil is related only to exogenous variables. The main results are as follows; Mature area is influenced inversely by lagged wage rates and directly by lagged investment in oil palm, two important determinants of planting decisions. The only variable that is significant in the estimated production function is the time trend variable, a proxy for disembodied technical progress. Finally, domestic consumption of palm oil is found to be highly elastic with respect to the own-price and the price of final goods.