Category Archives: 2001 Vol 13 No 2

Characterization of glycerol residue from a palm kernel oil methyl ester plant

Glycerol residue, a by-product of glycerol refining from a palm kernel oil methyl ester plant, was characterized using standard test methods. The selected parameters were the contents of glycerol, ash, moisture and matter organic non-glycerol (MONG) and pH. It was found to contain, on average, 20.2% glycerol, 64.3% ash, 3.0% moisture, 12.4% MONG at pH 12.8. Fatty acids (6.6%) were isolated and comprised mainly C8:0 (30.3%), C10:0 (9.4%) and C12:0 (40.8%).

Effects of additives on palm-based polyurethane foams

A preliminary study was made on the effects of some additives on the properties of palm-based polyurethane foam, such as density, hardness and curing time. The additives – Ethacure 100, Ethacure 300, Amisol CDE and KD-1, N-methyl-2,2′-iminodiethanol (MDEA) and phthalic anhydride – were incorporated into the polyurethane foam by mixing with blended polyols (40 g palm-based polyol with 60 g petro-based polyol) and MDI (4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocynanates) and 2.3 g water used as the blowing agent. Incorporating 5 ppH Ethacure 100 and 10 ppH Amisol (either CDE or KD-1) substantially increased the density of the foams from 264 kg m-3 to 398.28 kg m-3 and the hardness from 34.5 to 55 shore D, while the demoulding time was decreased from 20 min to less than 5 min

Crude glycerine recovery from glycerol residue waste from a palm kernel oil methyl ester plant

Eight samples of glycerol residue (GR1-1 to GR1-8) from one batch (GR1) were subject to chemical and physical treatments to recover crude glycerine, crude fatty acids and salt. The average weight percentages of the recovered components were: crude glycerine 33.9%, crude fatty acids 10.5% and salt 65.2%. The average composition of the recovered crude glycerine was: glycerol 51.4%, ash 13.8%, water 8.9% and matter organic non-glycerol (MONG) 25.9%. Crude glycerines with pH from 1-2 and 5-7 were produced. Chemical treatment at low pH (1-2) was better as it increased the glycerol and reduced the ash contents in the recovered crude glycerine. However, the MONG content was slightly increased. The treatment also increased the recovered salt and reduced the crude glycerine (giving a crude glycerine with lower dissolved salt and higher glycerol), but did not affect the recovery of crude fatty acids

Geometrical isomers of the major provitamin A palm carotenes, α- and β-carotenes in the mesocarp oil of fresh and sterilized palm fruits, crude palm oil and palm carotene-based products: red palm olein and carotene concentrates

Polymeric C30 reversed-phased (RP) liquid chromatography (LC) columns were used to identify the geometrical isomers of the major carotenes from the mesocarp oil of fresh (MOFPF) and sterilized palm fruits (MOSPF), crude palm oil (CPO) and palm carotene-based products (red palm olein [RPOo] and carotene concentrates). In MOFPF, the isomers of β-carotene were all trans, 13-cis, 13′-cis and 9-cis and the isomers of β-carotene all trans and 13-cis. MOSPF had similar geometrical isomers plus two unidentified cis α-and β-carotenes. CPO had the geometrical isomers of MOSPF plus 9-cis- β-carotene. The isomer profiles of carotenoid extracts from RPOo and carotene concentrates (CC1 and CC2) had similar patterns to that of CPO. The percentage compositions of total cis-isomers of a – and b -carotene in MOFPF, MOSPF, CPO, RPOo, CC1 and CC2 were 18.2%, 44.9%, 43.5%, 45.4%, 55.9%, and 38.8%, respectively.

Properties of sodium soap derived from palm-based dihydroxystearic acid

Sodium soap of dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) was prepared by reacting DHSA and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The properties of the soap, such as foamability, detergency, biodegradability and wetting power were evaluated. DHSA soap had higher foamability and detergency than stearic acid soap, comparable to palm stearin sulphonated methyl ester (SME) at room temperature. DHSA soap degraded more than 60% in 28 days, but stearic acid soap only 30%. The wetting time for DHSA soap was 2 min, comparable to SME but faster than stearic acid soap. DHSA soap also exhibited good corrosion inhibition with a corrosion rate of 0.002 mm yr-1 at 100 ppm

Refining of crude glycerine recovered from glycerol residue by simple vacuum distillation

Glycerol residue obtained from the refining of glycerol in a palm kernel oil methyl ester plant is a schedule waste and can be processed to recover its glycerol. On average, 141.8 g (14.2%) distilled glycerine (97% purity) were recovered from 1 kg glycerol residue by a simple vacuum distillation at 120 ° C – 126 ° C and 4.0 x 10-1 – 4.0 x 10-2 mbar pressure. The pH for the distillation was kept <5 in order to avoid foaming. The characteristics of the distilled glycerine were: 96.6% glycerol, 0.03% ash, 1% water (Karl Fischer method), 2.4% matter organic non-glycerol (MONG) and pH 3.5

Short Communications

*NEW POLYESTER ACRYLATE RESINS FROM PALM OIL FOR WOOD COATING APPLICATIONS

*QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PEROXIDE VALUE IN THERMALLY OXIDIZED PALM OLEIN BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

*OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOWTHERM ATM IN EDIBLE OILS AND OLEOCHEMICALS

*BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING PLANTATION TREE CROPS: THE OIL PALM – A CASE STUDY