Category Archives: 2006 Vol 18 Dec

Safety assessment of palm kernel oil, palm kernel stearin and palm kernel olein in marine environment

The acute toxicity of water accomodated fraction (WAF) of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), crude palm kernel stearin (CPKST) and crude palm kernel olein (CPKOL) to Acartia tonsa (a marine copepod) and Skeletonema constatum ( a chain forming marine algae) was determined at three loading rates: 10,100 and 1000 mg liter-1. WAF methodlogy was used for the toxicity tests as these palm products are poor water-soluble. Measurement of the carbon (TC) of the test medium before the start of the tests confirmed that there were low levels of stabilized material in the WAFs. The mean concentrations of TC in 1000 mg litre-1 WAFs prepared from palm kernel oil, palm kernel stearin and palm kernel olein were 4.5, 1.0 and 5.2 mg litre-1, respectively. All the palm products tested were not toxic to A. tonsa. Palm kernel oil and palm kernel olein were harmless to S. costatum at a loading rate of 10 mg litre-1. They were slightly toxic at 100 mg litre-1 and toxic at 1000 mg litre-1. Palm kernel stearin wea harmless to S. constatum at a loading rate of 100 mg litre-1 and only slightly toxic at 1000 mg litre-1.

Palm carotenoids profile as a quality control tool for palm carotene producers: introducing an imporvised methods by HPLC-photodiode array and A C30 column

This study establishes a more detailed HPLC profile of palm carotenoidsthan that possible from reverse phase C18 column analysis that detects 11 types of carotenes but can only partially resolve the cis/trans geometrical isomers. Carotenoid extracts of palm pressed fibre, crude palm oil (CPO) and commercial red palm olein (CRPo) were analysed by HPLC-photodiote array detection using a reverse phase C30 column and the palm carotenoids elution sequence was found to be lutein, neuroporene (trans), neurosporene (cis), α-zeacarotene (cis), α-zeacarotene (trans), α-zeacarotene (cis), phytoene, phytofluene, β-zeacarotene, 13 and 13′ cis α-carotene, 13 cis β-carotene, trans α-carotene, 9 cis α-carotene, trans β-carotene, δ-carotene a (cis), δ-carotene b (cis), δ-carotene (trans), γ-carotene a (cis), γ-carotene(trans), γ-carotene b (cis), lyopene (cis) and lycopene (trans). However, ξ-carotene was not detected using this new method The run time for complete analysis was about 200 min.

Oil palm empty fruit bunch-polypropylene composites: the effect maleated polypropylene on the mechanical properties

The production of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre–polypropylene (PP) composites with treated and non-treated maleated polypropylene (MAPP) was studied. Commercial MAPP (Epolene 43) and MAPP samples synthesized at the laboratory were used to determine MAPP’s effectiveness as a coupling agent for EFB fibre-composites. Several analyses on MAPP-treated composites were carried out including FTIR spectra, acid number and Gd tests to determine the action of the anhydride. The flexural and impact properties of the treated composite samples produced in the laboratory using both Epolene 43 and MAPP samples produced at laboratory were significantly better than those of the untreated composites.

Thermal properties of oil palm fibre, cellulose and its derivatives

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are abundantly produced in palm oil mills from processing the fresh fruit bunches. Holecellulose, a composite of hemicelluloses and cellulose, was extracted from EFB using acidfied sodium chlorite method. The x-cellulose was then separated from the holocellulose using 17.5% sodium hydroxide solution. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC) was synthesized from the x-cellulose by etherification with chloroacetic acid

Autocatalytic hydrolysis and autooxidation of crude palm oil under various constant humidities

The kinetics of autocatalytic hydrolysis of crude palm oil was studied at moisture below solubility using the isopiestic methods, in which the oil was exposed to a volume of sulphuric acid at a certain concentration in a closed system and stored at 55C. Different humidities were created by using different concentrations of sulphuric acid, thereby effecting different activities of water in the oil

Freeze-drying of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf and its effect on the quality of extractable DNA

The use of molecular genetic markers in plant breeding and genetic resource management in oil palm requires the analysis of large numbers of samples and the availability of rapid and efficient DNA extraction methods. This often requires leaf samples to be stored in an ultra low temperature freezer for future use. This takes up valuable freezer space. Thus, freeze-drying is proposed as an alternative. The freeze-dried tissue can be ground into dry powder for efficient storage in freezers. This paper describes a method to freeze-dry oil palm leaf and compares the quality of genomic DNA extracted from non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried leaves. The effects of storage temperature (–20°C and 4°C) and duration (up to 18 months) on the DNA stability in the freeze-dried leaf were also evaluated. The freeze-dried leaf yielded high molecular weight DNA of sufficient purity and quality for molecular biology applications. The study demonstrated that freeze-dried oil palm leaves can be stored at -20°C and 4°C for at least 18 months with no DNA degradation. DNA prepared from the freeze-dried leaves was also acceptable for both RFLP and SSR analyses. Freeze-drying oil palm leaf provides an economical solution to long-term storage and handling because of the reduced weight and space requirement. In addition, up to four times as many samples can be processed for DNA isolation per day per person using freeze-dried powder of oil palm leaves, compared to using fresh tissue or tissue frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Scaled-up production and optimization study on the esterification of palm-based fatty acid and triethanolamine

Esterquats or cationic surfactants are increasingly used because of their fabrics softening effect and excellent biodegradability. Esterquats production is a two-stage process involving esterification and quaternization. Esteramines, an intermediate for the production of esterquats is produced by esterifying of palm-based fatty acid and triethanolamine in the presence of hypophosphorus acid of 50% purity. The esterificarion variables, and colour of esteramines produced. Vaccum and temperature had a profound impact on the esterification process. A vaccum of a least 40 mbar was required for the formation of a light-colour esteramines. The reaction time was shortened from 9 hr to approximately 4 hr when the reactor temperature was increased from 160°C to 180°C. Improved colour of the estramine was also obeserved with the higher temperature effect. However, mixing intensity only had minimal effect on both the esterification rate and colour of the esteramines.