Category Archives: In Press

ENZYMATIC INTERESTERIFICATION OF PALM FRACTIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COCOA BUTTER ALTERNATIVES

Cocoa butter is the most preferable confectionery fat. In spite of this, cocoa butter alternatives (CBA) are also highly sought-after confectionery fats due to low supply and higher cost of cocoa butter. In the pursuit to produce palm-based CBA, various technological modification techniques have been employed. These include fractionation, blending, hydrogenation, interesterification (chemical and interesterification) or combination of these processes. Enzymatic interesterification (EIE) of lipids has received a lot of attention for the production of palm-based CBA especially cocoa butter equivalent. This review article, therefore, intends to offer an overview of EIE studies for the production of palm-based CBA. In this review, technological modification techniques are discussed in brief while publication related to EIE are discussed in depth based on its reactions categories (i.e. acidolysis, ester-ester exchange and alcoholysis). Reaction condition (i.e. subtrate, enzyme and optimum condition) and outcome of the EIE process are outlaid in this article.

EFFECT OF FLOW RATE AND CONCENTRATION OF CARBAMIDE ON THE REDUCING NOx EMISSIONS IN PALM BIODIESEL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE

This study examines the consequences of concentration and flow rate of carbamide (urea) to reduce NOx emissions from a diesel engine propelled with biodiesel. Taguchi-Grey relational-based multi-response optimisation method was employed for test-plan. Results revealed that carbamide flow rate and its concentration have a positive impact on NOx emissions reduction in unmodified diesel engine. The obtained results are also justified with results attained from ANOVA. It is also confirmed that the results obtained in the experimentations are in line with the calculated values obtained Taguchi technique. Hence, the usage of carbamide in tailpipe is an effective way in reducing NOx emissions from diesel engine.

TRANSGENIC OIL PALM ANALYSIS VIA FLUORESCENCE in situ HYBRIDISATION, FLOW CYTOMETRY AND CYTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES

Transgenic oil palm plantlets containing the transgenes, phaA, phaB and phaC responsible for the synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) were analysed using flow cytometry (FCM), cytological and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Flow cytometry analysis was carried out to determine the nuclear DNA content of the transgenic oil palm. Analysis of the results showed significant differences between all the transgenic events and DxP regenerated plantlets (control). The mean genome size for DxP regenerants (2C = 3.52 ± 0.30 pg) was smaller compared with all the transgenic events, which had different genome sizes: TE 3-11 with size 2C = 4.38 ± 0.37 pg, TE 7-22 with 2C = 4.31 ± 0.26 pg, TE 4-5 with 2C = 4.09 ± 0.31 pg, TE 6-4 with 2C = 4.07 ± 0.63 pg, TE 9-4 with 2C = 4.01 ± 0.25 pg and TE 11-15 with 2C = 4.01 ± 0.37 pg. Cytological analysis showed no chromosomal aberrations such as anaphase bridges or lagging chromosomes. FISH analysis showed integration of transgenes on one or two chromosomes, targeting the distal region of long and middle length chromosomes.