Category Archives: InPress

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES DETERMINED BY CULTURE-DEPENDENT AND-INDEPENDENT APPROACHES IN OIL PALM PLANTED ON TROPICAL PEATLAND

A combination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based method and sequencing technologies have initiated a new era of soil microbial ecology to examine the patterns of bacterial communities in tropical peatland. The aims of the study are to verify and compare the bacterial communities in a 12-year-old oil palm plantation on peat of Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The bacterial diversity identified from both approaches were amplified using 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) (341/907) primer, sequenced and analysed. This resulted in recovering a total of 227 bacterial isolates belonging to four major phyla accumulated from 22 genera. Meanwhile, about 216 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were excised, which corresponded to 195 different bacterial species from 20 different phyla by culture-independent method. Although both approaches detected a total of four predominant bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes), in general, different taxonomic sequences were targeted by each method. In comparison to culture-dependent, polymerase chain reaction-(PCR) DGGE method identified a higher rate of bacterial diversity and richness and also detected non-culturable bacteria. Thus, this suggests that culture-independent method was showed to be more efficient on the bacterial diversity identification that will lead towards unravelling the hidden bacterial species associated with agricultural practices carried out in Southeast Asia peatland.

EFFECT OF OPERATING TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH CELLULOSE-DERIVED BIOCHAR

The oil palm lignocellulosic biomass is mass-produced which leads to management and disposal issue. Hence, converting it into carbonaceous material such as biochar is advantageous. One such by-products namely empty fruit bunch (EFB), comprises of 44.4 wt% cellulose, rendering it a prominent feedstock for biochar production. The study focuses on assessing the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on cellulose biochar properties and yields. The cellulose was extracted via standard method and carbonised using thermogravimetric analyser. The proximate and ultimate analyses and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the biochar characteristics. Lower biochar yield, volatile matter (VM) and hydrogen contents were generated at higher temperature, whereas an opposite trend was observed for moisture, fixed carbon and ash contents. The FTIR spectra verified the presence of carboxyl, aromatic and hydroxyl groups at 250°C and 400°C; however, the bands diminished at 750°C. This work has identified that biochar produced at 250°C possesses excellent properties including higher biochar yield (32.51%±0.48), carbon content (57.98 wt%) and VM (38.68 wt%). High level of VM is beneficial for microbial rejuvenation, which is ideal for soil amendment. This study provides a key basis in establishing the suitable biochar properties and pyrolysis parameter for soil amendment as well as other applications.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL REFRIGERATED AND NON-REFRIGERATED MARGARINES/FAT SPREADS SOLD IN MALAYSIA

Margarines/fat spreads are commonly consumed by Malaysians, however, these products lack documented quality characteristic information. This evaluation was aimed to determine the quality characteristics of retail refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads sold in Malaysia. This evaluation was done via two approaches. The first approach was compilation and evaluation of information from the label of the product. The details evaluated were country of origin, type of packaging, weight of products, type of oils used, percentage of trans fatty acid (TFA) and type of fortification. The second approach was the analysis of the margarines/fat spreads which covered slip melting point (SMP), fatty acid composition (FAC), solid fat content (SFC) and texture. The labels showed that six out of the nine refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were imported and all non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were produced locally. The ingredient list showed that 16 out of 18 margarines/fat spreads from both segments declared the use of palm oil-based fats and most of the products were fortified with vitamins. The analysis showed that the SMP of refrigerated and nonrefrigerated margarines/fat spreads ranged from 30.8°C-36.9°C and 37.1°C-40.2°C, respectively. The TFA level in the refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads ranged from 0.25%-0.30% (excluding one product from Australia with 4.25%) and from 0.16%-0.43%, respectively. The SFC of refrigerated products at 5°C ranged from 11.6% and 26.4%, while non-refrigerated products at 30°C ranged from 7.7% and 13.7%. The evaluation showed that the several characteristics of the refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were substantially different despite their similar function in food applications, which were influenced by the storage temperature as the application temperatures were similar. Periodic and more extensive compilation of quality characteristic information should be carried out to provide the latest details on these products.

RED PALM OIL IN LAYING DUCKS DIETS: EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, EGG QUALITY, CONCENTRATIONS OF YOLK CAROTENOIDS

Red palm oil (RPO) has high nutritional value but it has not been widely used as poultry feed material. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of RPO as poultry feed material on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk colour, content of carotenoids and fatty acid profile in the yolk. Eightyfour Khaki Campbell ducks (50 weeks of age) were studied for eight weeks to examine the effects of RPO on the above characteristics. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) Control group (contains 30 g kg–1 soyabean oil), ii) 10 g kg–1 RPO (10 g kg–1 RPO+20 g kg–1 soyabean oil), iii) 20 g kg–1 RPO (20 g kg–1 RPO+10 g kg–1 soyabean oil), and iv) 30 g kg–1 RPO (contains 30 g kg–1 RPO). RPO supplementation increased feed intake, improved the yolk egg colour, and increased the content of lutein, β-carotene and total carotenoids in egg yolk (P<0.05). Dietary RPO could reduce serum triglyceride levels in laying ducks as well as total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in egg yolk. Our further studies also found that the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents of duck egg yolks in experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.001). Therefore, feeding of RPO can produce natural, healthy red-yolk eggs. The suitable RPO concentration is 20 g kg–1.

ASSOCIATION OF DIETARY FATS WITH GUT MICROBIOTA PROFILE: HOW DOES PALM OIL FIT IN?

Diet manipulation alters the gut microbiota composition. Gut dysbiosis is characterised by imbalanced bacteria composition that has been associated with high fat diet. Diets containing high animal fat induce pathogenic bacteria growth and similar bacterial profiles have been identified in obese adults and chronic disease patients. Conversely, diets containing high plant fat increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria. Habitual fat intakes modulate the bacterial species and their metabolites in different geographical locations and ethnicities. Dietary interventions using various degrees of fatty acid saturation reported reduced bacterial diversity in high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diet and increased in high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet. However, high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet demonstrated a wide variation in bacterial diversity. These results suggested that the effects of dietary fats on gut microbiota composition are not fully established. Palm oil has almost balanced proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids coupled with unique stereo-specificity fatty acids compositions and nutritional properties, making it the main vegetable oil in the Malaysian diet. However, its effect on the gut microbiota profile is still unknown. This review highlights the abundance of specific bacteria after consuming various dietary fats and proposes potential bacteria profile following the palm oil diet.

DRYING OF OIL PALM LUMBER BY COMBINING AIR FORCE DRYING AND MODIFIED SUPERFAST DRYING METHODS

In this study, super-fast drying (SFD) method was modified by adding forced-air drying (AFD) method in the beginning stage. The modified drying method is called modified super-fast drying (MSFD). This method eliminates the holing process in SFD and makes it more favourable by wood-based manufacturers. Inner and outer portion of oil palm lumber (OPL) were segregated and dried using both SFD and MSFD methods. The drying rate and drying defects of the OPL dried with AFD method were compared with conventional air drying (AD) method. The OPL dried with MSFD were compared with SFD in terms of drying defects, rate, physical and mechanical properties. The results revealed that AFD method exhibited significantly effective drying rate compared to AD by shorten the time needed to achieve desired moisture content (MC). On the other hand, MSFD were found to be able to reduce the outer OPL to 10% within 3 hr. The SFD method reported the same rate of drying performance. However, MSFD did not involve the unfavourable holing process as in SFD method. In addition, OPL dried using MSFD exhibited better mechanical and physical properties than SFD. The findings suggested the MSFD method is an enhanced method compared to SFD method.

CHAMPIONING SUSTAINABLE TREATMENT OF OIL PALM BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE VIA BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS

Oil palm is the most important commodity crop for Malaysia and Indonesia. However, it is being threatened by a disease identified as basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma spp. Common approaches such as chemical and cultural control have failed to demonstrate total effectiveness in controlling BSR disease. Nevertheless, these practices cause detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, the attention on adopting biological control agents (BCA) as one of the sustainable methods to eradicate and control BSR disease is on the rise. The current review highlights on the attempts and outcome of applying various BCA such as fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes as single or mixed application to control BSR disease in oil palm.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY AND IMPACT OF THE SHELL GENE INNOVATION AS A QUALITY CONTROL TOOL TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

The oil palm, from West Africa, has greatly contributed to the economy of Malaysia, especially in raising the living standards of the rural population. The crop has also helped satisfy the growing need for oils and fats by the ever-increasing world population. Nevertheless, the palm oil industry is now at the cross-roads, facing serious challenges in its declining yield brought on by issues such as climate change, shortage of labour and arable land. Modern biotechnology, which can differentiate between high performing and low performing palms in the nursery prior to field planting can help in addressing some of these challenges, especially by improving the crop’s productivity. This article relates the historical development of the industry in Malaysia, its contribution to the country’s economy and explores how science and technology are necessary for its long-term sustainable development. In line with this, a simple economic model demonstrates the feasibility of applying DNA testing to reduce low yielding non-tenera contamination in commercial fields.

THE DYNAMIC OF CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) EMISSION AND LAND COVERAGE ON INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ON OIL PALM REPLANTING AREA

Oil palm replanting has faced environmental criticism as it is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The aim of this study was to determine the level of CO2 emissions and the value of carbon stocks for oil palm smallholders replanting. The measurements were taken using the infrared gas analyser (IRGA) method for CO2 emission. Non-destructive methods were used to measure carbon stocks for oil palm-stands while destructive methods were used for understorey and intercropped plants. This study shows that there was dynamic of CO2 emission during the replanting averaging (t CO2 ha–1 yr–1) 28.5 for 28-year old oil palm, 59.0 for bare land after land clearing, 47.0 for intercropped plants in the vegetative phase, 51.6 for intercropped plants in the generative phase and 42.9 for one-year-old oil palm. It was found that CO2 emissions were reduced due to the conditions of land coverage and that the reduction in CO2 emissions occurred not only because of the absorption of CO2 by plants for photosynthesis but also due to being stored away, as much of the carbon stock (t C ha–1) was found in corn (10.2), legume cover crops (7.6), soyabeans (3.5) and natural vegetation (2.8). In 28-year old oil palm it was found to be at 74.7.

MOLECULAR CLONING OF Elaeis guineensis PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (Egpsy) AND ITS EXPRESSION IN MESOCARP TISSUES

Phytoene synthase (psy) gene is responsible for the synthesis of carotenoids in plants. In this study complimentary DNA (cDNA) and genomic sequences of psy were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolated from the mesocarp tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). The size of the full-length cDNA was 2233 bp. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1299 bp and encoded 433 deduced amino acid (AA) residues. The transcript profile revealed that psy was expressed at a maximum level at 12 weeks after anthesis (WAA). The lowest expression of psy was at 13 WAA, which was speculated as the transition of the leaf-like carotenoid to the formation of storage carotenoids. The AA sequence deduced from the cDNA was 70%- 78% identical to PSY from other higher plants. The genomic sequence analysis revealed that the psy gene contains six exons and five introns. Southern blot analysis indicated that oil palm has only one copy of the psy gene in its genome.

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF PALM KERNEL CAKE AS BROILER FEED USING PRE-CLEANING SYSTEM

The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler feed is limited due to high fibrous material contributed mainly by dirt and shell, exceeding 6%. The fibrous component consists of mainly insoluble mannosebased polysaccharides which is not suitable for monogastric animals such as poultry and swine. This study highlights the development of a pre-cleaning system consisting of three-stage winnowing columns to reduce the shell content in kernel by less than 4% prior to oil extraction. In this study, the palm kernels received from 21 palm oil mills were subjected to dirt and shell content analysis. To produce palm kernel with low shell content, the pre-cleaning system was optimised. Further analysis on nutrient values was also carried out for premium grade PKC produced, also known as Purafex, from the clean kernels of low shell content (<4%) after pre-cleaning. A feeding trial was carried out to study the effect of different Purafex inclusion in the dietary treatment on the broilers performance. Results showed that the dirt and shell contents in the kernels varied from 3.48%–5.18%. The nutrient values and quality of Purafex conformed to that of standard specifications by Malayan Edible Oil Manufacturers’ Association (MEOMA). Reduction of shell and fibre in kernel reduces the crude fibre in Purafex from ≥15% to ≤12%, which is far below the fibre in commercial PKC, thus making it digestible for monogastric animals. Better performance in terms of body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were exhibited when 15%–30% Purafex were included in feeding trials compared to those of 45% inclusion.

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF OIL PALMBASED ON SELECTION WITH HYGROMYCIN

The bar gene conferring resistance to the herbicide Basta was used as a selectable marker in oil palm transformation system. However, the inefficiency in the selection system was believed to generate transgene escape and high rate of chimerism in oil palm. To overcome this limitation, an effective selectable marker for oil palm is required. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as the selectable marker for generation of stable oil palm transformation via biolistic method and subsequently improve the oil palm transformation efficiency. In this selection approach, the embryogenic calli were bombarded with the vectors carrying the hpt and a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter genes, which were driven by the 2X35S promoter assembled in pBINPLUS and pCAMBIA0380 (pPZP) backbones. Visualisation of GFP spots was observed using Fluorescence Microscope for confirmation of successful deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) delivery. The calli were then cultured on regeneration medium added with hygromycin at 10 mg litre–1 and consequently reduced to 5 mg litre–1. The presence of transgenes in the bombarded tissue was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of hpt and gfp genes. These results demonstrate the potential of hygromycin as an alternative selection agent for oil palm transformation.

RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM-BASED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE SOLUTIONS

Palm empty fruit bunches have been value added into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). However, its potential as rheological modifiers in cosmetic and personal care has yet to be explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rheological performance of the CMC solutions (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) against two commercially available CMC (cotton-based and wood-based CMC). Our study revealed that all the CMC solutions studied gave flow behaviour index of less than 1, which indicated the pseudoplastic or shearthinning properties. Among the three CMC studied, 2% and 3% CMC from palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB-CMC) and cotton-based CMC exhibited viscoelastic solid properties where the storage modulus (G’) was larger than loss modulus (G”) on amplitude sweep test. On the other hand, all the wood-based CMC did not exhibit any viscoelastic solid properties. In addition, the 2% palm-based CMC exhibited higher gel strength as compared to 2% cotton-based CMC solution, while the wood-based CMC exhibited fluidstructure through frequency sweep test. The palm-based CMC exhibited potential application as rheological modifier in consumer products particularly for the development of cosmetic and personal care products.

PRODUCTION OF FURFURAL FROM OIL PALM FIBRES

Furfural is a chemical compound produced by biomass rich in pentoses content in the hemicellulose as raw material, in a reaction catalysed in presence of strong acids. This study determines the process parameters for converting xylan, extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), into furfural using a two-step process, namely acid hydrolysis, followed by dehydration. Xylan was first extracted from OPEFB using direct alkaline extraction method. The resulting xylan was then treated with a known concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) (ranging from 11% v/v~15% v/v) with reaction time (ranging from 30-150 min), with or without presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) as co-catalyst to produce xylose. After dehydration process, xylose was converted into furfural with parameters as in dehydration process. Furfural was characterised using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). FTIR spectrum exhibited a very strong absorption at 1706 cm–1, indicating the presence of the conjugated carbonyl (C=O) group. The highest yield of furfural produced was 9.01% after treatment with 15% H2SO4 using NaCl as catalyst for 90 min. However, pentosans only contribute a portion of the total composition of lignocellulose, compared to cellulose which is the largest fraction of lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the furfural should be extracted using an integrated value economy method.

SENSORY EVALUATION OF FILLETS FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) FED DIETS CONTAINING OIL PALM LIPIDS

This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with a diet containing oil palm lipids on the sensory evaluation of tilapia fillet in relation to commercial and control feeds. Six tilapia fish grower diets were formulated with the inclusion of emulsified palm fatty acid distillate (Malaysian Palm Oil Board-High Energy, MPOB-HIE) and crude palm oil (CPO) at 5%, 8% and 10%. The negative control diet was made using similar raw materials, but without the inclusion of any lipid, while the commercial diet was used as a positive control. Thirty panellists were recruited from the staff of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board and students, without any specific priority in selection. Each panellist was required to evaluate steamed fish fillet samples on six attributes, namely colour, texture (firmness and sliminess), aroma, taste and overall quality using a nine-point hedonic scale of a quantitative descriptive analysis method. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in all sensory attributes among fillets of tilapia fed with different dietary treatments. The results of this study suggest that the incorporation of CPO and MPOB-HIE in tilapia feed formulation did not impart any negative effects on the sensory properties of the tilapia fillets.

OIL PALM MALE MEIOSIS PROFILING: FROM FIELD OBSERVATION TO CYTOGENETICS ANALYSIS

Male meiosis is a principal process in microsporogenesis, important for male fertility and gamete viability in higher plants. This division ensures genome stability of sexually reproducing organisms and creates genome variation enabling diversity in a species. We present a structured profiling of male meiosis in the interspecific oil palm hybrid, Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (OxG), for an in-depth understanding of the process. In the pollen mother cells (PMC), interaction between the parental genomes was observed in early prophase I, via genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH). At this meiosis I stage, the chromosome pairing revealed 16 complete bivalents, confirming the homologous pairing of each E. guineensis and E. oleifera chromosomes. Interestingly, we found that the E. guineensis and E. oleifera pollens had distinct morphologies, which represents another feature that differentiates the two species. This could also be used as a basis diagnostic tool to evaluate sterility in oil palm interspecific hybrids.

PREDICTION OF ACID, PEROXIDE AND TBA VALUES OF HEAT-TREATED PALM OIL USING A PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES–ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES MODEL BASED ON FOURIERTRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

Palm oil is widely used for frying food and is often used for repeated frying up to 40 hr or even longer. Frying causes a gradual quality decrease during heating due to fat oxidation or hydrolysis. The quality of fats and oils is commonly monitored by acid, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values (AV, PV and TBAV, respectively). This study aimed to use a partial least squares–ordinary least squares (PLS-OLS) model obtained from fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to predict AV, PV and TBAV values of heat-treated palm oil. Commercial palm oil was heated at 180oC for 72 hr. The multivariate mathematical models to predict AV, PV and TBAV were generated from the percentages of absorbance intensity of significant wavenumbers based on FT-IR readings (721.4 cm–1, 871.8 cm–1, 968.3 cm–1, 1033.9 cm–1, 1095.6 cm-1, 1377.2 cm–1, 1462 cm–1, 1751.4 cm–1, 2731.2 cm–1, 2839.2 cm–1 and 3005.1 cm–1). The PLS-OLS mathematical model satisfactorily predicted both AV and PV for palm oil samples heated up to 72 hr (R2 = 0.962 and 0.857, respectively), whereas for TBAV, the time was 58 hr (R2 = 0.845). This approach provides an alternative to monitoring palm oil quality during frying instead of the conventional methods in which the analytical procedures are time-consuming.

NEURAL NETWORKS METHOD IN PREDICTING OIL PALM FFB YIELDS FOR THE PENINSULAR STATES OF MALAYSIA

Reliable and accurate predictions in oil palm production can provide the basis for management decisions of budgeting, storage, distribution, and marketing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Non-linear Autoregressive Exogenous Neural Network (NARX) models were developed based on 19 440 data set of 15 inputs variables, namely, percentage of mature area and percentage of immature area, rainfall, rainy days, humidity, radiation, temperature, surface wind speed, evaporation and cloud cover, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter of less than 10 microns in size (PM10) for predicting oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The results were validated with an independent validation dataset. Results showed that NARX models performed more accurately with multiple coefficients of determination (R2) reached 97% and mean square errors (MSE) between 0.0104%-0.0665%, besides being an easy-to-use tool. Generally, NARX models proved to give more accurate predictions than the predictions of common ANN and Multi Linear Regression (MLR) models. Finally, 15-10-4-1 is chosen as the architecture of NARX for the states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perak, Pahang, Selangor, and Terengganu. The 15-7-4-1 is the best architecture of NARX for the state of Melaka and Pulau Pinang, while 15-13-4-1 architecture is for the state of Johor. This study showed that all of these architectures gave high accuracy with acceptable MSE values.

IS THERE A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR WILDLIFE IN OIL PALM PLANTATIONS IN MALAYSIA?

The oil palm scene is often highly debated and has been at the centre of controversy in the past decade. Dubbed the ‘cash crop’, many Third World tropical countries have seized the opportunity to mobilise oil palm at landscape levels to fuel the economy. However, many of these tropical countries are also rich in biodiversity and are home to many endemics and species of conservation importance. While it tackles economic issues like poverty alleviation, it comes at the cost of environmental destruction. Here we take a look at the potential values of forest fragments and wildlife-friendly practices in oil palm landscapes and their roles in conservation in Malaysia. As the demand for oil palm and its products are most likely to continue to grow, there is a need to look at how the relevant stakeholders will sustainably manage the increasing demand while improving biodiversity management.

PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) EVALUATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYMASS SPECTROMETRY (LC-MS) DATASETS OF Ganoderma boninense INTRACELLULAR METABOLITES

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has become a powerful analytical technique for studying broad coverage of chemical datasets describing complex biological systems and events. In order to interpret the underlying information in such datasets, multivariate analysis method such as principal component analysis (PCA) is crucial for multiple sample comparisons and multivariate data reduction. PCA has been used for evaluation of large-scale datasets derived from LC-MS analysis of fungal metabolites for many applications. Therefore, in this study, we describe on PCA as a descriptive tool to cope with large LC-MS datasets of intracellular metabolites of oil palm basal stem rot (BSR) fungal pathogen, Ganoderma boninense from in vitro liquid culture system. The results revealed a classification and grouping of G. boninense intracellular metabolites according to time trend, where the primary metabolites, i.e. glucose, gluconic acid, mannitol and malic acid were found differentially expressed in G. boninense. The presented findings suggest that the PCA model provides a general approach for handling, analysis and interpretation of large LC-MS datasets to reveal time-dependent changes of intracellular metabolites that may indicate G. boninense developmental process in vitro.