Category Archives: InPress

DOES PALM MID FRACTION AFFECT ADULT SATIETY?

Dietary fats with different melting characteristics, fatty acids chain length and positional distribution may affect postprandial gut hormones and satiety response. We investigated the effects of palm mid fraction (PMF) (POP-rich), shea stearin (SS) (SOS-rich) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSF) (OOO-rich) with either palmitic, stearic or oleic acid predominance at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions on gut hormone concentrations and satiety. A randomised, double-blind crossover (3 × 3 arms) orthogonal Latin-square study was conducted on 36 healthy adults (18 males, 18 females; average aged 23 years). Each subject received ~50 g of test fat incorporated in a muffin in random order, two weeks apart, over a six-week period. Blood samples were collected for a 3-hr period. We found that PMF- and HOSF-rich diets with either palmitic or oleic acid at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions exerted significantly higher (P<0.05) postprandial glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) compared to SS-rich diet. However, plasma glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin and visual analogue scale (VAS) (P>0.05) were not affected. These results suggested that PMF- and HOSF-rich diets increased the secretion of GIP that may promote satiety response in human adults.

SHORT COMMUNICATION: SIMPLIFIED APPROACH FOR EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SPONTANEOUS OIL PALM HAPLOID (Elaeis guineensis)

Haploid technology facilitates the production of completely homozygous plants that are desirable in crop breeding. Having just one complete set of chromosomes in a haploid individual allows it to be doubled to produce a normal but pure 2n diploid plant. Here, we report a simple way to identify natural haploids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from screening 6400 abnormal germinated seeds. Initially, the germinated seeds were selected based on 12 unique ‘off-type’ morphological characteristics. The selected seeds were then grown and the seedlings were subjected to a second selection for three distinctive characteristics. Ploidy analysis with flow cytometry (FCM) and chromosome karyotyping confirmed the haploidy of one seedling with stunted height and size. Further analysis with the True-to-Type single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel demonstrated that the plant was homozygous at all the loci tested, confirming its haploid status. This study has established a simple and systematic strategy that assists in accelerating early identification of oil palm spontaneous haploid.

MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) SEEDLINGS EXPOSED TO SIMULATED DROUGHT CONDITIONS

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) production is threatened by drought due to climate change and anthropogenic deforestation. This study aims to understand how drought conditions contribute to changes in foliar nitrate-nitrogen concentration as well as the effects on the growth and development of oil palm seedlings. Seventy oil palm seedlings were maintained in a screen house and subjected to simulated drought conditions. There was a significant reduction in the number of leaves with increased drought exposure from 10 to four per plant. Oil palm leaves exposed to higher drought levels had less broad leaves, with leaf area ranging from 133.25-172.22 cm2 compared to the control (383.73 cm2). The foliar yield per plant was low in plants exposed to extreme drought condition (2.27 g), compared to 71.98 g in the control. Moreover, total drought-exposed oil palm seedlings had the highest concentration of nitrate-nitrogen. E. guineensis exposed to no-drought conditions had more roots (18 roots) than those exposed to total or partial drought (6-10 roots per plant). Overall, there was a decrease in height, leaf area and the number of leaves for most of the seedlings exposed to drought condition, which might be detrimental to their photosynthetic ability and growth.

BIRD SPECIES RICHNESS, ABUNDANCE AND THEIR FEEDING GUILD ACROSS OIL PALMS DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MIST-NETTING METHOD IN BETONG, SARAWAK

There are a lot of studies comparing birds in oil palm plantation with forests and other crop ecosystems but less on bird across drained peat swamp forest converted to oil palm plantation. This study assessed the bird species richness, abundance and their feeding guild change throughout the oil palm development phases including drained peat swamp forest (DPSF), cleared land (CL), one-year-old palm (1YOP), two-year-old palm (2YOP), three-year-old palm (3YOP), four-year-old palm (4YOP) and five-year-old palm (5YOP). Sixty-seven species of bird were recorded across the development phases through mist-netting method, of which 35.8% were only recorded in DPSF, 19.4% of the DPSF bird species continued to be recorded after the forest conversion to oil palm plantation, and 44.8% of bird species were additional species from DPSF species, appearing following the planting of oil palm. Species richness of bird was significantly higher in DPSF than CL but similar level to those in oil palm plantation. Even though level of species richness in oil palm plantation was similar level to those in DPSF, Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling revealed that bird compositions were different according to the three grouping habitats; DPSF, CL and oil palm plantation. Species richness of insectivorous guild was ranked higher along the oil palm development phases. Species abundance of insectivorous was ranked higher at the early stage of development then omnivorous guild recorded abundant once the Yellow-vented Bulbul started to dominate oil palm of more than 2YOP. Good understanding on bird’s distribution change across the conversion of forest to oil palm development gives a better idea on how to minimise land disturbance during plantation operations.

THE EFFECTS OF RECYCLING PALM PRESSEDFIBRE OIL ON CRUDE PALM OIL QUALITY

Palm pressed-fibre oil (PPFO) is known as a phytonutrients rich oil. PPFO was practically recycled back to the crude palm oil (CPO) processing line to increase oil extraction rates. This study evaluated the effect of blending CPO with PPFO at different PPFO dosage from 5%-25% (w/w) on blended oil quality. Free fatty acid (FFA) of blended oils increased from 3.42%-3.91%, while deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) and iodine value (IV) decreased from 2.76 to 2.33 and 51.96 ± 0.37 to 50.21 ± 0.03, respectively. Minor components amount in blended oils were found to increase with carotenoids (539-654 ppm), squalene (475- 1201 ppm), sterols (433-808 ppm), phospholipids (34.67-63.84 ppm) and vitamin E (1185-1626 ppm). The oxidative stability of blended oils was improved (14.31-16.76 hr) but chlorine, iron and copper content were found to increase from 3.85-7.49 ppm, 13.58-17.63 ppm and 0.19-0.38 ppm, respectively. Although blending PPFO would deteriorate some quality properties of CPO, nonetheless, PPFO is rich with phytonutrients, therefore signifying its potential applications in pharmaceuticals and food industry.

THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE TREATMENT AND DELAYED HARVESTING ON OIL PALM FRUITLETS (Elaeis guineensis) OIL QUALITY

Conventional palm oil mill practice not only processes unwanted empty bunches in sterilisation stage but also produces large amount of wastewater. The oil extraction rate (OER) of the mill is affected by the quality of the oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB), which may consist of unripe fruit with less oil content, and uneven distribution of steam throughout the bunches during sterilisation. Besides the FFB, oil palm mills also process loose fruits either collected from the plantations or detached during FFB transportation to the mills. As these loose fruitlets are void of the stalk and core of the bunch, processing them in the same way as FFB is not cost effective. The objective of this study was to carry out processing of fruitlets using microwave, followed by solvent extraction. Loose fruitlets detached in plantations usually come from the outer layer of bunch which contains more oil compared to the inner layer. The following methodology was adopted in this study: 1) optimisation of load per batch for microwave processing of fruitlets, 2) optimisation of microwave heating parameters, and 3) processing of fruitlets detached from the same bunch over 21 days. Fruitlets were sterilised via microwave (2.4 GHz, 900 W, medium power) and its oil is extracted by n-hexane. Optimum load of 170-220 g fruitlets per batch with 3 min heating left the fruitlets to be well conditioned, i.e., softened mesocarp and unburned kernel. The fruitlets get heated rapidly by microwave due to instantaneous dielectric heating effect of moisturised materials. Quality of oil extracted from fruits detached from the same bunch collected over 21 days was investigated. Free fatty acids (FFA), deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI), and oxidative stability of the oil was found to have reduced from 1.3%, 4.32 and 15.18 hr to 6.5%, 0.86 and 5.28 hr, respectively.

MAPPING THE NITROGEN STATUS ON IMMATURE OIL PALM AREA IN MALAYSIAN OIL PALM PLANTATION WITH AUTOPILOT TRACTOR-MOUNTED ACTIVE LIGHT SENSOR

This study was conducted to identify and visualise spatially the Nitrogen (N) status on immature oil palm area with an autopilot tractor-mounted active light sensor (ALS) in a Malaysian oil palm plantation. All the measurements taken by the ALS were assessed ‘on-the-go’ at every second while the tractor was moving on the field with autopilot steering mode. The N status was analysed based on 46% of the N content in urea and 40 kg ha–1 N application rate for a standard fertiliser requirement for immature oil palm. The ordinary kriging method was used to produce the interpolated maps of the N status by means of the ArcGIS 10.3 software. It was found that mean N-as applied rate per hectare read by the sensor was 1.62% lower than the recommended one. By showing such very small difference in mean rates, generally, the system showed its effectiveness in monitoring N status on immature oil palm. The interpolated maps also successfully displayed spatial variability of the N status on immature oil palm area, which are useable for reference in applying variable rate application (VRA) to economise the use of fertiliser on the said crop.

OPTIMISATION OF ALKALI EXTRACTION OF PALM KERNEL CAKE PROTEIN

Palm kernel cake (PKC) is commonly used in animal feed, particularly as ruminant feed to supply protein and energy. There is little information on the properties of protein concentrate produced from the PKC which constitute 14%-17% of the meal. Protein concentrates can be produced from PKC using alkali extraction, where PKC is extracted with an alkali solution and followed by precipitation at the isoelectric point. Thus, this study examined the effects of extraction using several extractants at different conditions; meal ratio of 0.5:50-3.0:50 g ml–1, concentration of 0.1-1.0 M, pH 1-12, temperature of 30°C-80°C and time duration of 30-180 min. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was found to be the most suitable alkali for protein extraction. Optimum conditions for protein extraction were obtained at 1.0 M NaOH concentration, 50°C temperature, meal to solvent ratio of 2:50 (g ml–1), pH 12 and 120 min. The extracted protein was isolated by isoelectric precipitation at pH 3.5 using 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCI). The percentage of protein recovery was 80%-86%. Protein content in the recovery ranged from 45%-50%. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that arginine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine and leucine were the most abundant amino acids in the concentrates.

THE EFFECT OF SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN BIO-BASED LUBRICANT TO THE TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES USING FOUR-BALL TRIBOTESTER

The performances of bio-based lubricants were influenced by the strength of its molecular interaction between the fatty acid chain and iron molecules on metal surfaces. In this study, the fatty acid compositions of refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil (RBDPO), double fractionated palm olein (SPL) and palm mid olein (PMO) were determined by using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Four-ball tribotester was used to evaluate the performance of the lubricants in terms of friction coefficient, wear scar diameter (WSD) and surface roughness (Ra). It was found that PMO with high saturated fatty acid content exhibited excellent tribological characteristics subjected to various temperatures and rotational speeds. However, there was no significant impact observed at extreme pressure (EP) conditions. The physical wear condition was also discussed and analysed.

EVALUATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ISOLATION METHODS FOR OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) LEAF

An efficient preparation of pure and intact mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) that is free from nuclear DNA contamination is a prerequisite to study the molecular complexities of the organellar genome and gene structure in oil palm. Different extraction methods have been reported for mtDNA isolation from different plants. Using oil palm leaf tissues that are present in abundance, three methods were tested and modified to isolate mtDNA. The methods used vary primarily at the purification steps, either by using phenol/chloroform or density gradient centrifugation. High ionic alkaline buffer coupled with differential centrifugation were employed in Method I. While Methods II and III utilised the discontinuous sucrose and Percoll gradient centrifugation for mitochondria isolation, respectively. Method III provided good quality mtDNA from green leaves, yielding ~6.3 μg g–1 tissue. Restriction digest and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for regions specific to mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast DNA further verified the quality of the mtDNA from Method III, which had the least plastid DNA contamination. Method III that incorporated Percoll density gradient centrifugation was the most efficient and provided good quality mtDNA without nuclear DNA contamination for sequencing applications and studies requiring pure mtDNA.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES DETERMINED BY CULTURE-DEPENDENT AND-INDEPENDENT APPROACHES IN OIL PALM PLANTED ON TROPICAL PEATLAND

A combination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based method and sequencing technologies have initiated a new era of soil microbial ecology to examine the patterns of bacterial communities in tropical peatland. The aims of the study are to verify and compare the bacterial communities in a 12-year-old oil palm plantation on peat of Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The bacterial diversity identified from both approaches were amplified using 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) (341/907) primer, sequenced and analysed. This resulted in recovering a total of 227 bacterial isolates belonging to four major phyla accumulated from 22 genera. Meanwhile, about 216 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were excised, which corresponded to 195 different bacterial species from 20 different phyla by culture-independent method. Although both approaches detected a total of four predominant bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes), in general, different taxonomic sequences were targeted by each method. In comparison to culture-dependent, polymerase chain reaction-(PCR) DGGE method identified a higher rate of bacterial diversity and richness and also detected non-culturable bacteria. Thus, this suggests that culture-independent method was showed to be more efficient on the bacterial diversity identification that will lead towards unravelling the hidden bacterial species associated with agricultural practices carried out in Southeast Asia peatland.

EFFECT OF OPERATING TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH CELLULOSE-DERIVED BIOCHAR

The oil palm lignocellulosic biomass is mass-produced which leads to management and disposal issue. Hence, converting it into carbonaceous material such as biochar is advantageous. One such by-products namely empty fruit bunch (EFB), comprises of 44.4 wt% cellulose, rendering it a prominent feedstock for biochar production. The study focuses on assessing the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on cellulose biochar properties and yields. The cellulose was extracted via standard method and carbonised using thermogravimetric analyser. The proximate and ultimate analyses and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the biochar characteristics. Lower biochar yield, volatile matter (VM) and hydrogen contents were generated at higher temperature, whereas an opposite trend was observed for moisture, fixed carbon and ash contents. The FTIR spectra verified the presence of carboxyl, aromatic and hydroxyl groups at 250°C and 400°C; however, the bands diminished at 750°C. This work has identified that biochar produced at 250°C possesses excellent properties including higher biochar yield (32.51%±0.48), carbon content (57.98 wt%) and VM (38.68 wt%). High level of VM is beneficial for microbial rejuvenation, which is ideal for soil amendment. This study provides a key basis in establishing the suitable biochar properties and pyrolysis parameter for soil amendment as well as other applications.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL REFRIGERATED AND NON-REFRIGERATED MARGARINES/FAT SPREADS SOLD IN MALAYSIA

Margarines/fat spreads are commonly consumed by Malaysians, however, these products lack documented quality characteristic information. This evaluation was aimed to determine the quality characteristics of retail refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads sold in Malaysia. This evaluation was done via two approaches. The first approach was compilation and evaluation of information from the label of the product. The details evaluated were country of origin, type of packaging, weight of products, type of oils used, percentage of trans fatty acid (TFA) and type of fortification. The second approach was the analysis of the margarines/fat spreads which covered slip melting point (SMP), fatty acid composition (FAC), solid fat content (SFC) and texture. The labels showed that six out of the nine refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were imported and all non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were produced locally. The ingredient list showed that 16 out of 18 margarines/fat spreads from both segments declared the use of palm oil-based fats and most of the products were fortified with vitamins. The analysis showed that the SMP of refrigerated and nonrefrigerated margarines/fat spreads ranged from 30.8°C-36.9°C and 37.1°C-40.2°C, respectively. The TFA level in the refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads ranged from 0.25%-0.30% (excluding one product from Australia with 4.25%) and from 0.16%-0.43%, respectively. The SFC of refrigerated products at 5°C ranged from 11.6% and 26.4%, while non-refrigerated products at 30°C ranged from 7.7% and 13.7%. The evaluation showed that the several characteristics of the refrigerated and non-refrigerated margarines/fat spreads were substantially different despite their similar function in food applications, which were influenced by the storage temperature as the application temperatures were similar. Periodic and more extensive compilation of quality characteristic information should be carried out to provide the latest details on these products.

RED PALM OIL IN LAYING DUCKS DIETS: EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, EGG QUALITY, CONCENTRATIONS OF YOLK CAROTENOIDS

Red palm oil (RPO) has high nutritional value but it has not been widely used as poultry feed material. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of RPO as poultry feed material on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk colour, content of carotenoids and fatty acid profile in the yolk. Eightyfour Khaki Campbell ducks (50 weeks of age) were studied for eight weeks to examine the effects of RPO on the above characteristics. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) Control group (contains 30 g kg–1 soyabean oil), ii) 10 g kg–1 RPO (10 g kg–1 RPO+20 g kg–1 soyabean oil), iii) 20 g kg–1 RPO (20 g kg–1 RPO+10 g kg–1 soyabean oil), and iv) 30 g kg–1 RPO (contains 30 g kg–1 RPO). RPO supplementation increased feed intake, improved the yolk egg colour, and increased the content of lutein, β-carotene and total carotenoids in egg yolk (P<0.05). Dietary RPO could reduce serum triglyceride levels in laying ducks as well as total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in egg yolk. Our further studies also found that the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents of duck egg yolks in experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.001). Therefore, feeding of RPO can produce natural, healthy red-yolk eggs. The suitable RPO concentration is 20 g kg–1.

ASSOCIATION OF DIETARY FATS WITH GUT MICROBIOTA PROFILE: HOW DOES PALM OIL FIT IN?

Diet manipulation alters the gut microbiota composition. Gut dysbiosis is characterised by imbalanced bacteria composition that has been associated with high fat diet. Diets containing high animal fat induce pathogenic bacteria growth and similar bacterial profiles have been identified in obese adults and chronic disease patients. Conversely, diets containing high plant fat increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria. Habitual fat intakes modulate the bacterial species and their metabolites in different geographical locations and ethnicities. Dietary interventions using various degrees of fatty acid saturation reported reduced bacterial diversity in high saturated fatty acid (SFA) diet and increased in high monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) diet. However, high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) diet demonstrated a wide variation in bacterial diversity. These results suggested that the effects of dietary fats on gut microbiota composition are not fully established. Palm oil has almost balanced proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids coupled with unique stereo-specificity fatty acids compositions and nutritional properties, making it the main vegetable oil in the Malaysian diet. However, its effect on the gut microbiota profile is still unknown. This review highlights the abundance of specific bacteria after consuming various dietary fats and proposes potential bacteria profile following the palm oil diet.

CHAMPIONING SUSTAINABLE TREATMENT OF OIL PALM BASAL STEM ROT DISEASE VIA BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS

Oil palm is the most important commodity crop for Malaysia and Indonesia. However, it is being threatened by a disease identified as basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma spp. Common approaches such as chemical and cultural control have failed to demonstrate total effectiveness in controlling BSR disease. Nevertheless, these practices cause detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, the attention on adopting biological control agents (BCA) as one of the sustainable methods to eradicate and control BSR disease is on the rise. The current review highlights on the attempts and outcome of applying various BCA such as fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes as single or mixed application to control BSR disease in oil palm.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY AND IMPACT OF THE SHELL GENE INNOVATION AS A QUALITY CONTROL TOOL TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

The oil palm, from West Africa, has greatly contributed to the economy of Malaysia, especially in raising the living standards of the rural population. The crop has also helped satisfy the growing need for oils and fats by the ever-increasing world population. Nevertheless, the palm oil industry is now at the cross-roads, facing serious challenges in its declining yield brought on by issues such as climate change, shortage of labour and arable land. Modern biotechnology, which can differentiate between high performing and low performing palms in the nursery prior to field planting can help in addressing some of these challenges, especially by improving the crop’s productivity. This article relates the historical development of the industry in Malaysia, its contribution to the country’s economy and explores how science and technology are necessary for its long-term sustainable development. In line with this, a simple economic model demonstrates the feasibility of applying DNA testing to reduce low yielding non-tenera contamination in commercial fields.

GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF OIL PALMBASED ON SELECTION WITH HYGROMYCIN

The bar gene conferring resistance to the herbicide Basta was used as a selectable marker in oil palm transformation system. However, the inefficiency in the selection system was believed to generate transgene escape and high rate of chimerism in oil palm. To overcome this limitation, an effective selectable marker for oil palm is required. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene as the selectable marker for generation of stable oil palm transformation via biolistic method and subsequently improve the oil palm transformation efficiency. In this selection approach, the embryogenic calli were bombarded with the vectors carrying the hpt and a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter genes, which were driven by the 2X35S promoter assembled in pBINPLUS and pCAMBIA0380 (pPZP) backbones. Visualisation of GFP spots was observed using Fluorescence Microscope for confirmation of successful deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) delivery. The calli were then cultured on regeneration medium added with hygromycin at 10 mg litre–1 and consequently reduced to 5 mg litre–1. The presence of transgenes in the bombarded tissue was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of hpt and gfp genes. These results demonstrate the potential of hygromycin as an alternative selection agent for oil palm transformation.

SENSORY EVALUATION OF FILLETS FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) FED DIETS CONTAINING OIL PALM LIPIDS

This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with a diet containing oil palm lipids on the sensory evaluation of tilapia fillet in relation to commercial and control feeds. Six tilapia fish grower diets were formulated with the inclusion of emulsified palm fatty acid distillate (Malaysian Palm Oil Board-High Energy, MPOB-HIE) and crude palm oil (CPO) at 5%, 8% and 10%. The negative control diet was made using similar raw materials, but without the inclusion of any lipid, while the commercial diet was used as a positive control. Thirty panellists were recruited from the staff of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board and students, without any specific priority in selection. Each panellist was required to evaluate steamed fish fillet samples on six attributes, namely colour, texture (firmness and sliminess), aroma, taste and overall quality using a nine-point hedonic scale of a quantitative descriptive analysis method. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in all sensory attributes among fillets of tilapia fed with different dietary treatments. The results of this study suggest that the incorporation of CPO and MPOB-HIE in tilapia feed formulation did not impart any negative effects on the sensory properties of the tilapia fillets.

IS THERE A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR WILDLIFE IN OIL PALM PLANTATIONS IN MALAYSIA?

The oil palm scene is often highly debated and has been at the centre of controversy in the past decade. Dubbed the ‘cash crop’, many Third World tropical countries have seized the opportunity to mobilise oil palm at landscape levels to fuel the economy. However, many of these tropical countries are also rich in biodiversity and are home to many endemics and species of conservation importance. While it tackles economic issues like poverty alleviation, it comes at the cost of environmental destruction. Here we take a look at the potential values of forest fragments and wildlife-friendly practices in oil palm landscapes and their roles in conservation in Malaysia. As the demand for oil palm and its products are most likely to continue to grow, there is a need to look at how the relevant stakeholders will sustainably manage the increasing demand while improving biodiversity management.