NORAZURA AILA MOHD HASSIM1*; SIVARUBY KANAGARATNAM1; SAW MEI HUEY1; NUR HAQIM ISMAIL1; RAFIDAH ABD. HAMID1; MUHAMMAD HANIF MISKANDAR1 and NOOR-SOFFALINA SOFIAN-SENG2
Received: 28 April 2022 Accepted: 3 August 2022 Published Online: 6 September 2022
The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of different percentages (0%-3.5%) of sunflower wax (SFW), carnauba wax (CW) and beeswax (BW) in 1:1 (v:v) palm superolein and sunflower oil blend (OSW). Selected physicochemical analyses, namely fatty acid composition, crystal structure and shear viscosity were conducted for OSW selection to be used in a product that is spreadable at low temperature (5°C-10°C) and phase separation does not occur at high temperature (40°C-45°C). Mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated as well as saturated fatty acids of all OSW were significantly different (p<0.05). Crystals in OSW with SFW showed needle-like structure and fibrous, while OSW with CW was observed to be spherulitic and OSW with BW was needle-like in shape at 10°C, 25°C, 40°C and 45°C. OSW with 3.5% SFW and 3.5% CW showed dense packing at 45°C; hence, it had the potential to prevent phase separation in the end product at high temperatures. The shear viscosity of all OSW at all temperatures was below 2.0 Pa.s, in which SFW showed the highest value at 5°C, although the value was low. Therefore, based on the experimental parameters, 3.5% CW can be implied as the best structuring agent, followed by 3.5% SFW.KEYWORDS:
1Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2 Department of Food Sciences,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
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