Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 32 (4) December 2020, p. 610-620 NOORSHAMSIANA, A W*; NOR FAIZAH, J*; KAMARUDIN, H*; NUR ELIYANTI, A O*; FATIHA, I* and ASTIMAR, A A*
Received: 4 November 2019 Accepted: 13 February 2020 Published Online: 2 September 2020
Cellulosic solid residual, which is the by-product of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)-xylan extraction process, was evaluated in terms of cellulose recovery by eco-friendly approach. The OPEFB-fibre was initially treated with alkaline for xylan extraction. The resulting solid residue was dried before treated with mild concentration of bleaching agents of 20% (v/v) formic acid and 5% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide at 85°C for the extraction of cellulose. The α-cellulose content of 84.16±0.4% was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the products obtained have the standard cellulose structure and functional group. The crystalline nature of the extracted cellulose, as proven by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has crystallinity index and crystalline size of 54.4% and 5.5 nm, respectively, whereas the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates the sample purity in terms of thermal stability at 370°C by comparing the results to commercially available cellulose. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the extracted cellulose morphology is in the form of separated fibrils. In terms of impurities, trace elemental analysis showed the presence of phosphorus (P) as the major element but the quantity of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and sulphur (S) detected on the cellulose was insignificant.KEYWORDS:
FIGURES & TABLES:
[APA 6th - American Psychological Association, 6th Edition]
Noorshamsiana, A. W., Nor Faizah, J., Kamarudin, H., Nur Eliyanti, A. O., Fatiha, I., & Astimar, A. A. (2020). Extraction and characterisation of cellulose from the residue of oil palm empty fruit bunch-xylan extraction. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 32(4), 610-620. doi:10.21894/jopr.2020.0052
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Adela, N B; Nasrin, A B; Loh, S K and Choo, Y M (2014). Bioethanol production by fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunches pretreated with combined chemicals. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 4: 234- 242.
Adiwiganda, R (2002). Defining the nutrient formulation and its minimum dosage of compound fertiliser based on the nutrient status of soil family for oil palm plantation in Indonesia. International Oil Palm Conference. Nusa Dua, Bali, 8-12 July, 2002. 24 pp.
Afandi, A M; Zulkifli, H; Khalid, H; Hasnol, O; Nur Zuhaili, H A Z A and Zuraidah, Y (2016). Oil palm fertiliser recommendation for Sabah soils. Oil Palm Bulletin No. 72: 1-24.
Alonso, J L; Domínguez, H; Garrote, G; Parajó, J C and Vázquez, M J (2003). Xylooligosaccharides: Properties and production technologies electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., 2(1): 230-232.
Bhatnagar, A and Sain, M (2005). Processing of cellulose nanofibre-reinforced composites. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 24: 1259-1268.
Brendel, O; Ianetta, P P M and Stewart, D (2000). A rapid and simple method to isolate pure alphacellulose. Phytochem. Anal., 11: 7-10. Chang, S H (2014). An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio oil production. Biomass Bioenergy, 62: 174-181.
Ching, Y C and Ng, T S (2014). Effect of preparation conditions on cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre. Bioresources, 9: 6373-6385.
Dhillon, G S; Kaur, S and Brar, S K (2013). Perspective of apple processing wastes as low-cost substrates for bioproduction of high value products: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 27: 789-805.
Fahma, F; Iwamoto, S; Hori, N; Iwata, T and Takemura, A (2010). Isolation, preparation and characterisation of nanofibers from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Cellulose, 17: 977-985.
Goh, J K and Rolf, H (2003). General oil palm nutrition. Oil Palm Management for Large and Sustainable Yields (Fairhust, T and Rolf, H eds.). p. 191-220.
Goldmann, W M; Ahola, J; Mikola, M and Tanskanen, J (2017). Formic acid aided hot water extraction of hemicellulose from European silver birch (Betula pendula) sawdust. Bioresour. Technol., 232: 176-182.
Gupta, P K; Agrawal, P and Hegde, P (2012). A review on xylooligosaccharides. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 3(8): 71-74.
Hook, B A; Halfar, J; Bollmann, J; Gedalof, Z; Rahman, M A; Reyes, J and Schulze, D J (2015). Extraction of α-cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis. Chemical Geology, 405: 19-27.
Jonoobi, M; Khazaeian, A; Tahir, P; Azry, S and Oksman, K (2011). Characteristics of cellulose nanofibres isolated from rubbwerwood and empty fruit bunches of oil palm using chemo-mechanical process. Cellulose, 18: 1085-1095.
Khalil, H P S A; Ismail, H; Rozman, H D and Ahmad, M N (2001). The effect of acetylation on interfacial shear strength between plant fibres and various matrices. Eur. Polym. J., 37: 1037-1045.
Khalil, H P S A; Siti Alwani, M; Ridzuan, R; Kamarudin, K and Khairul, A (2008). Chemical composition, morphology characteristics, and cell wall structure of Malaysian oil palm fibres. Polm. Plast. Technol. Eng., 47: 273-280.
Kushairi, A; Ong-Abdullah, M; Balu, N; Hishamuddin, E; Izuddin, Z B; Razmah, G; Subramaniam, V; Sundram, S and Parveez, G K A (2019). Oil palm economic performance in Malaysia and R&D progress in 2018. J. Oil Palm Res. Vol. 31(2): 165-194.
Law, K N; Daud, W R W and Ghazali, A (2007). Morphological and chemical nature of fibre strands of oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB). Bioresources, 2: 351-362.
Leavitt, S W and Danzer, S R (1993). Method for batch processing small wood samples to holocellulose for stable-carbon isotope analysis. Anal. Chem., 65: 87-89.
Li, B; Xu, W; Kronlund, D; Määttänen, A; Liu, J; Smått, J H and Xu, C (2015). Cellulose nanocyrstals prepared via formic acid hydrolysis followed by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. Carbohydr. Polym., 133: 605-612.
Lindman, B; Karlsöm, G and Stigsson, L (2010). On the mechanism of dissolution of cellulose. J. Mol. Liq., 156: 76-81.
Loader, N J; Robertson, I; Barker, A C; Switsur, V R and Waterhouse, J S (1997). An improved technique for the batch processing of small wholewood samples to α-cellulose. Chem. Geol., 136: 313-317.
Manderson, K; Pinart, M; Tuohy, K M; Grace, W E; Hotchkiss, A T; Widmer, W; Yadhav, M P; Gibson, G S and Rastall, R A (2005). In vitro determination of properties of oligosaccharides derived from an orange juice manufacturing by-product stream. Appl. Environ. Microbial., 71(12): 8383-8389.
Mansor, A M; Lim, J S; Ani, F N; Hashim, H and Ho, W S (2019). Characteristics of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of MD2 pineapple biomass. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 72: 79-84.
Marzialetti, T; Miller, S J; Jones, C W and Agrawal, P K (2011). Switchgrass pretreatment and hydrolysis using low concentrations of formic acid. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 86: 706-713.
McKendry, P (2002). Energy production from biomass (Part 1): Overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83(1): 37-46.
Megashah, L N; Ariffin, H; Zakaria, M R and Hassan, M A (2018). Properties of cellulose extract from different types of oil palm biomass. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., DOI: 10.1088/1757- 899X/368/1/012049.
Moran, J I; Alvarez, V A; Cyras, V P and Vazquez, A (2008). Extraction of cellulose and preparation of nanocellulose from sisal fibres. Cellulose, 15: 149-159.
Moure, A; Gullon, P; Domínguez, H and Parajo, J C (2006). Advances in the manufacture, purification and applications of xylo-oligosaccharides as food additives and nutraceuticals. Proc. Biochem., 41(9): 1913-1923.
Nascimento, P; Mariam, R; Carvalho, G; Celso, R and Cid, G (2015). Nanocellulose produced from rice hulls and its effect on the properties of biodegradable starch film. Materials Research, 19: 1-18.
Nawirska, A and Kwasniewska, M (2005). Dietary fibre fractions from fruit and vegetable processing waste. Food Chem., 91: 221-225.
Nazir, M S; Wahjoedi, B A; Yussof, A W and Abdullah, M A (2013). Eco-friendly extraction and characterisation of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches. BioResources, 8: 2161-2172.
Nazir, M S; Wahjoedi, B A; Yussof, A W and Abdullah, M A (2012). Green extraction and characterisation of cellulose fibres from oil palm empty fruit bunch. 2nd International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (ICPEAM2012) under World Engineering, Science & Technology Congress (ESTCON2012). Kuala Lumpur.
Noorshamsiana, A W; Astimar, A A; Nor Faizah, J and Mohamadiah, B (2015). Enzymatic production of xylo-oligosaccharides from fibers of empty fruit bunch. MPOB Information Series No. 701: 2 pp.
Norzita, N and Lani, N S (2014). Extraction and characterisation of cellulose from empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre. J. Teknologi, 68: 35-39.
Parajó, J C; Garrote, G; Cruz, J M and Dominguez, H (2004). Production of xylooligosaccharides by autohydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15(3-4): 115-120.
Patterson, A L (1939). The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Physical Review, 56: 978-982.
Poletto, M; Ornaghi Júnior, H L and Zattera, A J (2014). Native cellulose: Structure, characterisation and thermal properties. Materials, 7: 6105-6119. Rankine, I and Fairhust, T H (1999). Management of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in mature oil palm. Better Crops International, 13: 10-15.
Rosnah, M S; Astimar, A A; Wan Hasamudin, W H and Gapor, M T (2009). Solid-state characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre. J. Oil Palm Res. Vol. 21: 613- 620.
Seema, P and Arun, G (2011). Functional oligosaccharides: Production, properties and applications. World J. Microbiol Biotechnol., 27: 1119- 1128.
Segal, L; Creely, J J; Martin, A E and Conrad, C M (1959). An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Textile Research J., 29: 786-794.
Simone, M L R; Rehman, N; De Miranda, M I G; Nachtigall, S M B and Bica, C I D (2012). Chlorinefree extraction of cellulose from rice husk and whisker isolation. Carbohydr. Polym., 87: 1131-1138.
Sofla, M R K; Brown, R J; Tsuzuki, T and Rainey, T J (2016). A comparison of cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres extracted from bagasse using acid and ball milling methods. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 7: 1-9.
Sun, R; Fang, J M; Mott, L and Bolton, J (1999). Extraction and characterisation of hemicellulose and cellulose from oil palm trunk and empty fruit bunch fibres. J. Wood Chem. Technol., 19: 167-185.
Sundram, S; Angel, L P L and Sirajuddin, S A (2019). Integrated balanced fertiliser management in soil health rejuvenation for a sustainable oil palm cultivation: A review. J. Oil Palm Res. Vol. 31(3): 348-363.
Szymańska-Chargot, M; Chylińska, M; Gdula, K; Koziol, A and Zolunek, A (2017). Isolation and characterisation of cellulose from different fruit and vegetable pomaces. Polymers, 9: 495-511.
Wanrosli, W D; Zainuddin, Z and Lee, L K (2004). Influence of pulping variables on the properties of Elaeis guineensis soda pulp as evaluated by response surface methodology. J. Wood Chem. Technol., 38: 191-205.
Wise, L E; Murphy, M and Addieco, A A D (1946). Chlorite holocellulose, its fractionation and bearing on summative wood analysis and on studies on the hemicelluloses. Paper Trade J., 122: 35-43.
Zakaria, M R; Hirata, S and Hassan, M A (2015). Hydrothermal pretreatment enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose production from oil palm biomass. Bioresour. Technol., 176: 142-148.
Zeng, Y; Zhao, S; Yang, S and Ding, S (2014). Lignin plays a negative role in the biochemical process for producing lignocellulosic biofuels. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 27: 38-45.
Othman, N. E. A., Ismail, F., Aziz, A. A., & Wahab, N. A. (2021). Preparation and characterization of palm-based sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for application in food additive. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry, 11(5), 13053-13063. doi:10.33263/BRIAC115.1305313063