RESEARCH ARTICLE

Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 32 (4) December 2020, p. 610-620

EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CELLULOSE FROM THE RESIDUE OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH-XYLAN EXTRACTION

NOORSHAMSIANA, A W*; NOR FAIZAH, J*; KAMARUDIN, H*; NUR ELIYANTI, A O*; FATIHA, I* and ASTIMAR, A A*

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21894/jopr.2020.0052
Received: 4 November 2019   Accepted: 13 February 2020   Published Online: 2 September 2020
ABSTRACT

Cellulosic solid residual, which is the by-product of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)-xylan extraction process, was evaluated in terms of cellulose recovery by eco-friendly approach. The OPEFB-fibre was initially treated with alkaline for xylan extraction. The resulting solid residue was dried before treated with mild concentration of bleaching agents of 20% (v/v) formic acid and 5% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide at 85°C for the extraction of cellulose. The α-cellulose content of 84.16±0.4% was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that the products obtained have the standard cellulose structure and functional group. The crystalline nature of the extracted cellulose, as proven by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has crystallinity index and crystalline size of 54.4% and 5.5 nm, respectively, whereas the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates the sample purity in terms of thermal stability at 370°C by comparing the results to commercially available cellulose. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that the extracted cellulose morphology is in the form of separated fibrils. In terms of impurities, trace elemental analysis showed the presence of phosphorus (P) as the major element but the quantity of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and sulphur (S) detected on the cellulose was insignificant.

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[APA 6th - American Psychological Association, 6th Edition]

Noorshamsiana, A. W., Nor Faizah, J., Kamarudin, H., Nur Eliyanti, A. O., Fatiha, I., & Astimar, A. A. (2020). Extraction and characterisation of cellulose from the residue of oil palm empty fruit bunch-xylan extraction. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 32(4), 610-620. doi:10.21894/jopr.2020.0052


* Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
E-mail: noorsham@mpob.gov.my


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