RESEARCH ARTICLE

Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 33 (3) September 2021, p. 532-541

IS PALM MID FRACTION A HEALTHIER CHOICE AS A COCOA BUTTER EQUIVALENT?

VOON, P T1*; TOH, S W H2; NG, T K W3; LEE, V K M2; YONG, X S2; NG, Y T1 and NESARETNAM, K4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21894/jopr.2020.0100
Received: 15 July 2020   Accepted: 15 September 2020   Published Online: 12 November 2020
ABSTRACT

Palm mid fraction (PMF) is a fraction of palm oil rich in 1, 3-dipalmitoyl-2- oleoylglycerol (POP) triacylglycerol (TAG) that is obtained through re-fractionation of either palm olein or palm stearin. POP-, 1(3)-1, 3 distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS)- and triolein (OOO)- type of fats have different melting characteristics that may affect postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism. We aimed to study the effects of palmitic, stearic or oleic acid situated at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of edible fats on postprandial lipemia, glucose and insulin responses. A randomised, double-blind crossover (3 x 3 arms) orthogonal Latin-square design was used. A total of 36 healthy adults received three different test muffins, each containing 53 g of test fat from palm mid fraction (PMF as POP-rich fat), shea stearin (SS as SOS-rich fat) or high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF as OOO-rich fat) plus a low-fat milkshake in random order separated by two weeks. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the three test meals for postprandial responses in plasma total cholesterol, Lp(a), glucose and insulin levels. However, plasma TAG levels were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in PMF- and HOSF- subjects compared with SS- subjects after 90 min. Plasma C-peptide levels were found lower (P<0.05) in the SS-subjects compared to the PMF- and HOSF- subjects. The results suggested that dietary fats containing palmitic (PMF) and oleic acid (HOSF) at the sn-1, 3 positions of the TAG backbone exert similar postprandial lipid and glucose responses compared with that of a stearic acid-rich sn-1,3 dietary fat (SS). In the food industry, there is demand for edible fats with different forms of TAG which can serve as a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) i.e. as an important alternative for chocolates and other confectionary products.

KEYWORDS:

FIGURES & TABLES:

1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

2 International Medical University (IMU), Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

3 Department of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.

4 Jalan Kelab Golf, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

* Corresponding author e-mail: vptee@mpob.gov.my


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