Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 20 June  2008 June p.  484-494
DOI:

Life cycle inventory of the production of crude palm oil – a gate to gate case study of 12 palm oil mills

Author(s): VIJAYA Subramaniam * ; MA An Ngan * ; CHOO Yuen May * ; NIK MERIAM, N.S. **

Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the heart of a life cycle assessment (LCA) study.LCA is a tool to determine the environmental impacts of a product at all stages of its life right from cradle to grave. In order to carry out a LCA, inventory data have to be collected and the raw data have to be extrapolated tp produce a LCI. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunches are received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. For this study, 12 palm oil mills were selected. These palm oil mills were selected based on the type of mills which either plantations-based mills or private mills and have different processing capabilities of oil palm fresh fruit bunches ranging from 20 t hr-1 up till 90 t hr-1. The mills selected are all located at different zones in east and west Malaysia basically from north, mid south, south Peninsular Malaysia and east Malaysia. Inventory data collection consists of input and output of materials and energy. The input data basically are inputs of raw materials such as oil palm fresh fruit bunches, electricity, diesel, water, fuel for boiler etc. and the output consists of the biomass wastes, palm oil mill effluents, flue gases from stack, kernel etc. All data were collected for duration of three months from each mill. These inventory data were then calculated for the functional unit of every 1 t of crude palm oil produced at the palm oil mill.

Keywords: , , , ,

Author Information
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
E-mail: vijaya@mpob.gov.my

** Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.


Cited By

(29)
1) Deba, A.A., Mohd Zain, N.A., Salleh, M. Recent trend in residual palm oil recovery in a solid state fermentation (2018) Jurnal Teknologi, 80 (3), pp. 9-21.
2) Ro, D., Kim, Y.-M., Lee, I.-G., Jae, J., Jung, S.-C., Kim, S.C., Park, Y.-K. Bench scale catalytic fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches over low cost catalysts and HZSM-5 using a fixed bed reactor (2018) Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, pp. 298-303.
3) Abd Majid, M.A., Talib, N. Exhaust steam for biomass drying - Potential efficiency enhancement of palm oil mill cogeneration plant (2018) ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13 (4), pp. 1512-1517.
4) Choong, Y.Y., Chou, K.W., Norli, I. Strategies for improving biogas production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic digestion: A critical review (2018) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, pp. 2993-3006.
5) Arafa, S.A., Mohd Ali, A.Z.B., Abdul Awal, A.S.M., Shamsuddin, S.-M., Zakaria Hossain, M. Properties of coated and uncoated biomass aggregates and their effects on the strength and water permeability of pervious geopolymer concrete (2018) International Journal of GEOMATE, 14 (41), pp. 44-51.
6) Kanadasan, J., Razak, H.A., Subramaniam, V. Properties of high flowable mortar containing high volume palm oil clinker (POC) fine for eco-friendly construction (2018) Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, pp. 1244-1259.
7) You, S., Tong, H., Armin-Hoiland, J., Tong, Y.W., Wang, C.-H. Techno-economic and greenhouse gas savings assessment of decentralized biomass gasification for electrifying the rural areas of Indonesia (2017) Applied Energy, 208, pp. 495-510.
8) Nasrin, A.B., Vijaya, S., Loh, S.K., Astimar, A.A., Lim, W.S. Quality compliance and environmental impact assessment of commercial empty fruit bunch (EFB) pellet fuel in Malaysia (2017) Journal of Oil Palm Research, 29 (4), pp. 570-578.
9) Feen, O.S., Mohamed, R.N., Mohamed, A., Khalid, N.H.A. Effects of coarse palm oil clinker on properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete (2017) Jurnal Teknologi, 79 (6), pp. 111-120.
10) Khatri, P., Jain, S. Environmental life cycle assessment of edible oils: A review of current knowledge and future research challenges (2017) Journal of Cleaner Production, 152, pp. 63-76.
11) Palamae, S., Dechatiwongse, P., Choorit, W., Chisti, Y., Prasertsan, P. Cellulose and hemicellulose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers and production of sugars from the fibers (2017) Carbohydrate Polymers, 155, pp. 491-497.
12) Loh, S.K. The potential of the Malaysian oil palm biomass as a renewable energy source (2017) Energy Conversion and Management, 141, pp. 285-298.
13) Loh, S.K., Nasrin, A.B., Mohamad Azri, S., Nurul Adela, B., Muzzammil, N., Daryl Jay, T., Stasha Eleanor, R.A., Lim, W.S., Choo, Y.M., Kaltschmitt, M. First Report on Malaysia's experiences and development in biogas capture and utilization from palm oil mill effluent under the Economic Transformation Programme: Current and future perspectives (2017) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74, pp. 1257-1274.
14) Amosa, M.K., Jami, M.S., Alkhatib, M.F.R., Majozi, T. Technical feasibility study of a low-cost hybrid PAC-UF system for wastewater reclamation and reuse: a focus on feedwater production for low-pressure boilers (2016) Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23 (22), pp. 22554-22567.
15) Abdullah, S.S.S., Shirai, Y., Ali, A.A.M., Mustapha, M., Hassan, M.A. Case study: Preliminary assessment of integrated palm biomass biorefinery for bioethanol production utilizing non-food sugars from oil palm frond petiole (2016) Energy Conversion and Management, 108, pp. 233-242.
16) Kanadasan, J., Razak, H.A. Utilization of palm oil clinker as cement replacement material (2015) Materials, 8 (12), pp. 8817-8838.
17) Kanadasan, J., Fauzi, A.F.A., Razak, H.A., Selliah, P., Subramaniam, V., Yusoff, S. Feasibility studies of palm oil mill waste aggregates for the construction industry (2015) Materials, 8 (9), pp. 6508-6530.
18) Bessou, C., Chase, L.D.C., Henson, I.E., Abdul-Manan, A.F.N., Milà I Canals, L., Agus, F., Sharma, M., Chin, M. Pilot application of PalmGHG, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products (2014) Journal of Cleaner Production, 73, pp. 136-145.
19) Mohamed, A.R., Hamzah, Z., Daud, M.Z.M. The effects of process parameters on the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) using a fixed-bed reactor (2014) Advanced Materials Research, 925, pp. 115-119.
20) Mohamed, A.R., Hamzah, Z., Daud, M.Z.M. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD) (2014) AIP Conference Proceedings, 1605, pp. 1172-1177.
21) Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M.F., Rahim, N.A. Palm oil EFB: Green energy source in Malaysia (2014) Applied Mechanics and Materials, 619, pp. 376-380.
22) Cui, X., Zhao, X., Zeng, J., Loh, S.K., Choo, Y.M., Liu, D. Robust enzymatic hydrolysis of Formiline-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) for efficient conversion of polysaccharide to sugars and ethanol (2014) Bioresource Technology, 166, pp. 584-591.
23) Kong, S.-H., Loh, S.-K., Bachmann, R.T., Rahim, S.A., Salimon, J. Biochar from oil palm biomass: A review of its potential and challenges (2014) Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, pp. 729-739.
24) Norhasmillah, A.H., Puah, C.W., Ibrahim, N.A., Baharuddin, A.S., Choo, Y.M. Life cycle inventory of the commercial production of compost from oil palm biomass: A case study (2013) Environment, Development and Sustainability, 15 (6), pp. 1663-1670.
25) Yahya, Z., Abdullah, M.M.A.B., Hussin, K., Ismail, K.N., Sandu, A.V., Vizureanu, P., Razak, R.A. Chemical and physical characterization of boiler ash from palm oil industry waste for geopolymer composite (2013) Revista de Chimie, 64 (12), pp. 1408-1412.
26) Stemann, J., Erlach, B., Ziegler, F. Hydrothermal carbonisation of empty palm oil fruit bunches: Laboratory trials, plant simulation, carbon avoidance, and economic feasibility (2013) Waste and Biomass Valorization, 4 (3), pp. 441-454.
27) Chiew, Y.L., Shimada, S. Current state and environmental impact assessment for utilizing oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel, fiber and fertilizer - A case study of Malaysia (2013) Biomass and Bioenergy, 51, pp. 109-124.
28) Hafis, S.M., Ridzuan, M.J.M., Rahayu, A., Mohamed, Farahana, R.N., Nor Fatin, B., Syahrullail, S. Properties of palm pressed fibre for metal forming lubricant applications (2013) Procedia Engineering, 68, pp. 130-137.
29) Chase, L.D.C., Henson, I.E. A detailed greenhouse gas budget for palm oil production (2010) International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 8 (3), pp. 199-214.

Source: Scopus
Last updated: 30 July 2018

Call For Papers

Article In Press

Search for:


Most cited articles


SIGN UP To JOPR MAILING LIST

Subscribe with us to get the latest information on Palm Oil Research from MPOB today!