Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 32 (4) December 2020, p. 547-558



Received: 3 March 2020   Accepted: 12 April 2020   Published Online: 11 September 2020

Crude palm oil (CPO) and the main co-products of palm oil milling, namely, palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) have considerable potential nutritive value for laying hens. This review was conducted to study the effect of CPO, PKC and POME as feed ingredients on growth performance of laying hens and egg quality traits. CPO provides high caloric levels, and its inclusion in laying rations enhances the absorption of oil-soluble vitamins. High carotenoids (500-700 ppm) content in CPO improves egg quality by increasing the fatty acid content and colour intensity of egg yolk. Laying hens can tolerate up to 20%-30% PKC in the diet with no adverse effects on growth performance or egg quality traits. POME can be used as a feed ingredient for laying hens, and the recommended optimal level of inclusion is 10% of the total ration. However, due to high levels of fibrous matter in PKC and POME, further biotechnology treatments are needed for better utilisation in laying hens’ rations to yield optimum egg production. Replacement of the conventional feed ingredient in the laying ration with PKC and POME were found to be cost-effective in improving layer performance and egg quality


[APA 6th - American Psychological Association, 6th Edition]

Saminathan, M., Mohamed, W. N. W., Noh, A. M. D., Ibrahim, N. A., Fuat, M. A., Dian, N. L. H. M., & Ramiah, S. K. (2020). Potential of feeding crude palm oil and co-products of palm oil milling on laying hens’ performance and egg quality: A review. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 32(4), 547-558. doi:10.21894/jopr.2020.0059

* Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

** Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security,
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Selangor, Malaysia.

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