Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 21  2009 June p.  613-620
DOI:

Solid-state characteristics of microcrystalline cellulos from oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre

Author(s): ROSNAH Mat Soom* ; ASTIMAR Abd Aziz* ; WAN HASAMUDIN Wan Hassan* ; AB GAPOR Md Top*

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) are one of the by-products gen­er­ated from palm oil mills. They con­sist mainly of lig­no­cel­lu­losic com­pounds, namely cel­lu­lose, hemi­cel­lu­lose and lignin. Cel­lu­lose, in par­tic­u­lar, con­sti­tutes about 37% (dry weight) of the EFB, and is a com­pound with high value and can be exploited for the ben­e­fit of the palm oil indus­try.
In this study, an attempt to pre­pare micro­crys­talline cel­lu­lose (MCC) from the iso­lated EFB-cellulose was car­ried out. The MCC was pre­pared by con­trolled acid hydrol­y­sis of the iso­lated a-cellulose which attacked the amor­phous region, and was fol­lowed by the back neu­tral­iza­tion process with alkali. The struc­tural prop­er­ties of the cel­lu­lose and MCC were stud­ied by Fourier Trans­formed Infra-red Spec­trom­e­try (FTIR) and X-ray dif­frac­tion meth­ods. The FTIR spec­trum of MCC from EFB was iden­ti­cal to that of the com­mer­cial MCC as well as the cel­lu­lose which showed com­pa­ra­ble pres­ence of C-O-C, C-C, O-H, and C-H bands. How­ever, a broad peak at 3329 cm–1 was observed from the EFB-cellulose due to absorp­tion vibra­tion of the hydroxyl groups. The X-ray dif­frac­tion pat­tern revealed a low degree of order for EFB-cellulose and a rel­a­tively ordered struc­ture for EFB-MCC. Two peaks of dif­frac­tion angles rang­ing between 19º and 23º were observed in the EFB-MCC, indi­cat­ing the pres­ence of a small per­cent­age of cel­lu­lose II. The com­mer­cial MCC had a highly ordered struc­ture com­pared to EFB-MCC as indi­cated by the pres­ence of a sin­gle peak at 22.5º.

Keywords: , , ,

Author Information
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
E-mail: astimar@mpob.gov.my


Cited By

(20)
1. Embrandiri, A., et al. "Land Application of Biomass Residue Generated from Palm Oil Processing: Its Potential Benefits and Threats." Environmentalist 32(1) (2012): 111-117.
2. Mohamad Haafiz, M. K., et al. "Isolation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Biomass Residue." Carbohydrate Polymers 93(2) (2013): 628-634.
3. Nazir, M. S., et al. "Eco-Friendly Extraction and Characterization of Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches." BioResources 8(2) (2013): 2161-2172.
4. Razak, N. W. A., and A. Kalam. "Effect of Fibre Size on the Tensile Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre Composites." Advanced Materials Research 576 (2012): 280-283.
5. Razak, N.W.A., Kalam, A. "Effect of OPEFB Size on the Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of OPEFB/PPnanoclay/PP Hybrid Composites". Procedia Engineering. 41 (2012): 1593-1599.
6. Samat, N., W. N. A. Mokhtar, and N. Izzati Zulkifli. "Properties of Eco-Friendly Composite from Recycled Polypropylene." Advances in Environmental Biology 8(8) SPEC. ISSUE 3 (2014): 2760-2766.
7. Singh, J., et al. "Comparative Studies of Physical Characteristics of Raw and Modified Sawdust for their use as Adsorbents for Removal of Acid Dye." BioResources 6(3) (2011): 2732-2743.
8. Soom, R. M., et al. "Conversion of Lignocellulose from Oil Palm Biomass into Water-Soluble Cellulose Ether." Journal of Oil Palm Research 24.AUGUST (2012): 1412-1420.
9. Sung, Y. J., et al. "Preparation of Microcrystalline Cellulose by using Sawdust of Tropical Hardwood Nyatoh." Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry 43(3) (2011): 59-65.
10. Sung, Y. J., et al. "Study of Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Miscanthus Sinensis." Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry 42(4) (2010): 56-63.
11. Arjmandi, R., et al. "Effect of Hydrolysed Cellulose Nanowhiskers on Properties of montmorillonite/polylactic Acid Nanocomposites." International journal of biological macromolecules 82 (2016): 998-1010.
12. Hamid, S. B. A., et al. "Synergic Effect of Tungstophosphoric Acid and Sonication for Rapid Synthesis of Crystalline Nanocellulose." Carbohydrate Polymers 138 (2016): 349-55.
13. Pradeep, P., et al. "Mechanical Characterization of Jute Fiber Over Glass and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites." International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 10(11) (2015): 10392-10396
14. Xiang, L. Y., et al. "Microstructural, Mechanical, and Physicochemical Behaviours of Alkali Pre-Treated Oil Palm Stalk Fibres." BioResources 10(2) (2015): 2783-96.
15. Abdullah, M. A., et al. "Autoclave and Ultra-Sonication Treatments of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers for Cellulose Extraction and its Polypropylene Composite Properties." Journal of Cleaner Production 126 (2016): 686-97
16. Xiang, L. Y., P. M. A. Mohammed, and A. Samsu Baharuddin. "Characterisation of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Fibres for Food Applications." Carbohydrate Polymers 148 (2016): 11-20
17. Kachenpukdee, N., et al. "Modified Dietary Fiber from Cassava Pulp and Assessment of Mercury Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Uptake using an in Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Model System." Journal of Food Science 81(7) (2016): T1854-63.
18. Kuthi, F. A. A., N. R. A. Norzali, and K. H. Badri. "Thermal Characteristics of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Biomass." Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 20(5) (2016): 1112-1122.
19. Samat, N., M. S. Yahya, and N. H. M. Lazim. "The Compatibility Effects of Irradiated Recycled PP on the Mechanical and Water Properties of Recycled PP/microcrystalline Cellulose Composites". AIP Conference Proceedings.
20. Nasution, H., et al. "Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Microcrystalline (MCC) from Fiber of Empty Fruit Bunch Palm Oil", Vol. 180 (2017), doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012007.

Source: Scopus
Last updated: 22 May 2017

Call For Papers

Search for:

Most cited articles


SIGN UP To JOPR MAILING LIST

Subscribe with us to get the latest information on Palm Oil Research from MPOB today!