SOLKETAL LEVULINATE ESTER AS A POTENTIAL FUEL ADDITIVE FOR PALM BIODIESEL
Received: 14 June 2022 Accepted: 7 December 2022 Published Online: 31 January 2023
The use of Solketal levulinate ester (SoLE) as a potential cold flow improver (CFI) for palm biodiesel is studied. SoLE was added to palm biodiesel and several crucial palm biodiesel characteristics such as density, kinematic viscosity, pour point (PP), cloud point (CP) and cold flow plugging point (CFPP) were evaluated. SoLE was mixed with palm biodiesel at levels of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0%, 15.0% and 20.0%, except for CFPP, only at an additional level of 1.0%, 10.0% and 15.0%. From the study, it was observed that the best percent addition of SoLE depends on the respective parameter to be improved. The density of palm biodiesel, when blended with 0.5% to 2.5% SoLE has been shown to decrease the density of neat palm biodiesel and the density value is conformed to the EN ISO 12185 standard. Kinematic viscosity values were also enhanced with the addition of SoLE below 5.0%, and the value was also within the standard range of kinematic viscosity of palm biodiesel, which must be in the range of between 3.5-5.0 mm2s-1. The blending of palm biodiesel with SoLE at 15.0%-20.0% showed some promising effects by improving the pour point of palm biodiesel, between 2oC and 5oC, with a recommended 15.0% addition that is most economic. Similarly, the cloud point of palm biodiesel blended with SoLE at the same percentage addition showed a reduction between 3oC to 6oC. Palm biodiesel blended with SoLE at 15.0% addition showed a positive and noteworthy effect, especially on the improvement of the palm-biodiesel cold flow characteristics.KEYWORDS:
1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi,
Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2 School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
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