Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 31 (4) December 2019, p. 624-633 NIK SITI MARIAM NEK MAT DIN*; YEONG SHOOT KIAN*; HOONG SENG SOI*; ARNIZA MOHD ZAN*; SRIHANUM ADNAN* and RAHIMI M YUSOP**
Published Online: 24 October 2019
Derivatisation of glycerol (Gly) with levulinic acid (LA) to produce glycerol trilevulinate (Gt-LE) was studied. The reaction parameters affecting synthesis of Gt-LE were investigated. Catalytic and non-catalytic reactions between Gly and LA were carried out. Effects of reaction time and temperature on non-catalytic reaction were observed. Conversely, for catalysed reaction, reaction parameters studied were type of catalyst, mole ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. Result analysis indicated that for the catalyst-free reaction, increment of reaction time and temperature will further reduce the acid value of reaction product. On the other hand, for catalytic reaction, p-TsOH accelerated the reaction much faster than montmorillonite, Amberlyst-15 or Amberlyst-46. Result analysis also showed that the best mole ratio and catalyst loading to obtain high composition of Gt-LE without having to go through cumbersome purifying process was 1:6 with 8% catalyst loading. For reaction conducted with mole ratio of 1:6 (Gly:LA), the optimum reaction time and temperature was found to be 8 hr and 140°C, respectively, in which GC analysis showed that product contained about 84.5% of Gt-LE.KEYWORDS:
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
** School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.