Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 31 (2) June 2019, p. 294-303 YOONG JUN HAO*; SAW MEI HUEY*; YEOH CHEE BENG*; SIVARUBY KANAGARATNAM*; LUQMAN CHUAH ABDULLAH** and THOMAS CHOONG SEAN YAW**
Received: 27 June 2018 Accepted: 10 April 2019 Published Online: 16 May 2019
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of adding 0.1% (w/w) – 0.9% (w/w) polyglycerol esters (PGE) on palm olein fractionation based on crystal nucleation, crystal growth and product quality aspects. Palm olein (IV 56) with PGE additives was subjected to crystallisation at a temperature of 13°C for 335 min. The crystal nucleation and its growth were monitored using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) technique, during which the in-line changes of crystal size distribution during the process were analysed. The fractionated products were analysed for their iodine value (IV) and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition. The FBRM results showed that the PGE promoted crystal nucleation coupled with reduced formation of undesired large crystals during the crystallisation stage. The product analysis also showed that the PGE discouraged the formation of olein entrainment in the solid fraction but promoted the formation of 1, 3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) content in the solid fraction. In addition, PGE also slowed the formation of 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoy-glycerol (POO). The optimal dosage that offered best performance was 0.3% (w/w) PGE which gave the most medium sized crystals and best palm mid fraction product with lowest IV and highest content of POP. These results implied that PGE is a nucleation enhancing and crystal growth retarding additive in palm olein crystallisation at 0.3% (w/w) dosage.KEYWORDS:
* Malaysian Palm Oil Board,
6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi,
43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
** Faculty of Chemical and Engineering,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang,