Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 32 (4) December 2020, p. 639-646



Received: 18 November 2019   Accepted: 5 April 2020   Published Online: 7 October 2020

Ecuador has a variety of agroindustrial by-products, which can be used in animal feed, although their nutritional values are often unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate bromatological composition of palm kernel cake (PKC) in samples from two palm oil extraction plants in two areas (Quevedo and Santo Domingo) and two production periods (August and September). Random samples were taken weekly with two repetitions for a total of 64 samples. Dry matter (DM), ash, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), calcium, phosphorus, crude energy (CE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were determined. OM (62.92%) and EE (10.10%) content were higher at the Quevedo plant, while CF (23.84%) and ADL (24.66%) were higher at the Santo Domingo plant. The sampling period affected DM (98.58%), CF (23.98%) and ADL (23.78%) content, which were higher in September, while EE (10.87%) and phosphorus (0.44%) were higher in August. For CP, NFE, NDF, ADF, ash, calcium, CE and ME, interaction was observed between the two factors studied. It was concluded that most of the parameters analysed depend on the place of origin or the extraction season, or interaction between the two factors.



* School of Zootechnical Engineering,
Faculty of Livestock Sciences,
Quevedo State Technical University,
Km 6½ via a El Empalme cruce a Mocache,
120501 Quevedo, Los Rios, Ecuador.

** Department of Aquaculture, Agricultural and Fisheries
Research and Training Institute (IFAPA),
Km 4, Carretera El Rompido-Punta Umbria,
21450 Cartaya, Huelva, Spain.

‡ Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
University of Cordoba,Campus de Rabanales,
s/n 14071 Cordoba, Spain.

‡‡ Department of Agroforestry Sciences,
Higher Technical School of Agronomic Engineering,
Sevilla University, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.

‡‡‡ Department of Agroforestry Sciences,
University of Huelva, Campus de la Rabida,
21819 Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, Spain.

Aguilera, J F (2001). Aportaciones al conocimiento de la nutrición energética de pequeños rumiantes, con particular referencia al ganado caprino. Archivos de Zootecnia., 50: 565-596. Alimon, A R (2004). The nutritive value of palm kernel cake for animal feed. J. Oil Palm Res. Vol. 40: 12-16.

Arosemena, A; Depeters, E and Fadel, J (1995). Extent of variability in nutrient composition within selected by-products feedstuffs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 54: 103-120.

AOAC (2006). Official Methods of Analysis (Horwitz, W and Latimer, G eds.). 18th Edition, Gaithersburg., p. 1-68.

Babatunde, M; Fetuga, G; Odumosu, O and Oyenuga, V (1975). Palm kernel meal as the major protein concentrate in the diets of pigs in the tropics. J. Sci. Food Agric., 26: 1279-1291.

Belyea, R; Esteevens, B; Restrepo, R and Clubb, A (1989). Variation in composition of by-products feeds. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 2339-2345.

Dairo, F A S and Fasuyi, A O (2007). Evaluation of fermented palm kernel meal and fermented copra meal proteins as substitute for soyabean meal protein in laying hens diets. J. Cent. Eur. Agr., 9: 33-47.

Estupiñan, G; Santacruz, L and Cristancho, A (2013). Caracterización de las variables de crecimiento, niveles foliares y de rendimiento en dos materiales genéticos de palma OxG y DxP en diferentes edades de desarrollo de la plantación Guaicaramo S.A. Revista Palmas., 34: 99-108.

Fairhurst, T (2010). Algunas prácticas clave de manejo para máximo rendimiento en cultivos maduros de palma de aceite. Revista Palmas., 31(1): 45-46.

Fetuga, B; Babatunde, G and Oyenuga, V (1977). The value of palm kernel meal in finishing diet for pigs. J. Sci. Food Agric., 26: 1279-1291.

Gasa, J and Castrillo, C (1992). Criterios de utilización de subproductos agroindustriales en la alimentación de rumiantes. Hojas divulgativas 13/91. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Madrid. 24 pp.

Hutagalung, R; Mahyuddin, M and Jalabudin, S (1981). Feed for farm animals from the oil palm. National Workshop on Oil Palm By-products Utilization. abstract/20053053501, accessed on 16 July 2018.

INMH (2018). Meteorological Yearbook No. 52-2012. National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Republic of Ecuador. www.serviciometeorologico., accessed on 24 November 2018.

Lekule, F; Jorgensen, H; Fernandez, J and Just, A (1990). Nutritive value of some tropical feedstuffs for pig. Chemical composition, digestibility and metabolizable energy content. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 28: 91-101.

MAGP (2013). Short-term survey program No. AG86-II-2013. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Republic of Ecuador. https://contenido. Catalogo/Encuestas/Coyuntura/Integradas/ etc201302.pdf, accessed on 22 February 2019.

Munévar, F (2004). Criterios agroecológicos útiles en la selección de tierras para nuevas siembras de palma de aceite en Colombia. Revista Palmas., 28(2): 148-164.

Ng, W K; Lim, H K; Lim, S W and Ibrahim, O (2002). Nutritive value of palm kernel meal pretreated with enzyme or fermented with Trichoderma koningii (Oudemans) as a dietary ingredient for red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). Aqua Resc., 33: 1119-1207.

Novus International Inc. (1994). Raw Material Compendium a Compilation of Worldwide Data Sources. Second edition, Bruselas por Novus Europe. 511 pp.

Nuzul, I (2013). Characteristics of Malaysian palm kernel and its products. J. Oil Palm Res. Vol. 25: 245- 252.

Nwokolo, E; Bragg, D and Kitts, W (1976). The availability of amino acids from palm kernel, soybean, cottonseeds and rapeseeds meal for the growing chick. J. Poult. Sci., 55: 2300-2304.

Onwudike, O (1986). Palm kernel meal as a feed for poultry replacement of groundnut cake by palm kernel meal in broiler diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 16: 179-186.

Ott, L and Longnecker, M (2010). An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis. Fifth edition. Vol. 1. R R Donnelley & Sons, Inc./Willard (Carolyn Crockett; Ann.). p. 850-854.

Pántano, V; Spescha, L; Penalba, O and Murphy, G P (2013). Influencia de la variabilidad de temperatura y precipitación en la situación hídrica del suelo, en la región oriental de secano de la Argentina. Revista Meteorológica., 39: 21-36.

Rahim, M; Alimon, A R and Ivan, M (2010). Effects of fungal treatment on the in vitro digestion of palm kernel cake. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Vol. 22. Article #82. rami22082. htm, accessed on 17 April 2014.

Romero, H; Ayala, I and Ruiz, R (2007). Ecofisiología de la palma de aceite. Revista Palma., 28: 176-184.

Sharmila, A; Alimon, A R; Azhar, K; Noor, H M and Samsudin, A A (2014). Improving nutritional values of palm kernel cake (PKC) as poultry feeds. Mal. J. Anim. Sci., 17: 1-18.

Urrueta, J (2009). Procesos Industriales. Segundo Congreso Nacional de Palma de Aceite. Palenque, Chiapas, México, Febrero 12 y 13 de 2009.

Van Soest, P; Robertson, J and Lewis, B (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3582-3591.

Varela, M (2010). Boletín mensual de análisis sectorial de MIPymes. https://www.flacso. y8vglufp6cnyudewphelq8muq0cozq.pdf, accessed on 14 Abril 2018.

Vargas, E (2000). Composición y variabilidad de los subproductos de trigo utilizadios en la alimentación en Costa Rica. Nutricion Animal Tropical., 6: 23-38.

Vargas, E and Zumbado, M (2003). Composición de los subproductos de la industrialización de la palma africana utilizados en la alimentación animal en Costa Rica. Agronomía Costarricense, 27: 7-18.

Vegas, A; Ortega, D; Gualoto, W; Paredes, E; Rebolledo, E; Quintero, L and Ortega, J (2016). Respuesta de la Palma Africana Hibrido INIAPTENERA Cultivada In Vitro según el Tipo de Explante y Niveles de Ácido Naftalenacético. Revista Bioagro., 28: 193-200.

Wing Keong, N (2005). Investigación sobre el uso de la torta de palmiste en alimentos para la acuicultura. Revistas Palmas, 26: 79-80.

Yeong, S W; Mukherjee, T K and Hutagalung, R (1981). The nutritive value of palm kernel cake as a feedstuff for poultry. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3582-3597.

Yeong, S W and Mukherjee, T K (1983). The effect of palm oil suplementation in palm kernel cake-based diets on the perfomance of broilers. Malays. Agric. Res. Dev. Inst., 11: 378-384.