Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. Special Issue  2008 Oct p.  115-126
Effect of new palm oil mill processes on the EFB and POME utilization

Author(s): SCHUCHARDT, Frank * ; WULFERT, Klaus ** ; DARNOKO Herawan + ; TJAHONO Herawan +

New palm oil mill processes are char­ac­ter­ized by advanced oil sep­a­ra­tion tech­nolo­gies with zero dilu­tion water (‘ECO-D’ for exam­ple as a new sys­tem for oil recov­ery with­out dilu­tion water) and con­tin­u­ous ster­il­iza­tion of the fresh fruit bunch (FFB). These processes have a deep impact on the amount and com­po­si­tion of waste water (POME). Com­pared to con­ven­tional palm oil mills the total amount of palm oil mill efflu­ent (POME) can be reduced from 0.65 m3 t–1 FFB to 0.45 m3 t–1 (con­ven­tional ster­il­iza­tion and zero dilu­tion water) and 0.25 m3 t–1 (con­tin­u­ous ster­il­iza­tion and zero dilu­tion water). These changes influ­ence the treat­ment processes and its cost sig­nif­i­cantly. One process for the EFB and POME uti­liza­tion which can ful­fil the demand of a sus­tain­able palm oil pro­duc­tion is the co-composting of both of the mate­ri­als. The com­post­ing process is used also for bio­log­i­cal dry­ing of the POME. The final prod­uct of the process is com­post or mulch which uni­fies the nutri­ents of both in one prod­uct. The POME can be used also for bio­gas pro­duc­tion (in fixed bed reac­tors for POME with low dry mat­ter con­tent and in totally mixed reac­tors for ECO-D bio­mass) before com­post­ing. The invest­ment cost and prof­itabil­ity of the com­post­ing and fer­men­ta­tion process is cal­cu­lated in detail based on data from prac­tise in Indone­sia. The new devel­op­ments of processes in palm oil mills can reduce the cost for the waste and waste water treat­ment up to 35%. The ben­e­fits from bio­gas pro­duc­tion and com­post­ing are the energy pro­duc­tion, saved POME treat­ment cost in pond sys­tems, total uti­liza­tion of the POME nutri­ents, reduced cost for the EFB trans­port and uti­liza­tion, higher empty fruit bunch (FFB) yields and from clean devel­op­ment mech­a­nism (CDM).

Keywords: , , , , ,

Author Information
* Heinrich von Thunen-Institute, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Braunschweig, Germany.
E-mail: frank.schuchardt@vti.bund.de

** Development and Application of Environmental friendly Technology GmbH, Bremen, Germany.

+ Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI), Medan, Indonesia.


Cited By

1. Embrandiri, A., et al. "Land Application of Biomass Residue Generated from Palm Oil Processing: Its Potential Benefits and Threats." Environmentalist 32(1) (2012): 111-117.
2. Kong, S. -H, et al. "Biochar from Oil Palm Biomass: A Review of its Potential and Challenges." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 39 (2014): 729-739.
3. Koura, T. W., et al. "Farmers' Background and Diversity of Uses of Palm Oil Wastes for Sustainable Agriculture in Southern Benin Republic." Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 31(1) (2015): 35-44.
4. Schuchardt, F., H. Stichnothe, and K. -D Vorlop. "Waste Water and Waste Utilisation in Palm Oil Mills as Contribution to Climate Protection." Landbauforschung Volkenrode 61(2) (2011): 93-100.
5. Stichnothe, H., and F. Schuchardt. "Comparison of Different Treatment Options for Palm Oil Production Waste on a Life Cycle Basis." International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15(9) (2010): 907-915.
6. Stichnothe, H., Schuchardt, F. "Life Cycle Assessment of Two Palm Oil Production Systems." Biomass and Bioenergy 35(9) (2011): 3976-3984.
7. Wu, T. Y., et al. "Pollution Control Technologies for the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) through End-of-Pipe Processes." Journal of environmental management 91(7) (2010): 1467-1490.
8. Chavarro Gomez, J., et al. "Recovery of Residual Crude Palm Oil from the Empty Fruit Bunch Spikelets using Environmentally Friendly Processes." Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) 50(11) (2015): 1677-1683.
9. Embrandiri, A., et al. "Sustainable Utilization of Oil Palm Wastes: Opportunities and Challenges." Waste Management: Challenges, Threats and Opportunities., 2015: 217-232.
10. Hasanudin, U., et al. "Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment and Utilization to Ensure the Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries." Water Science and Technology 72(7) (2016): 1089-1095.
11. Hashim, K., S. Tahiruddin, and A. J. Asis. "Palm and Palm Kernel Oil Production and Processing in Malaysia and Indonesia." Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Characterization, and Uses., 2012. 235-250.
12. Garcia-Nunez, J. A., et al. "Evolution of Palm Oil Mills into Bio-Refineries: Literature Review on Current and Potential Uses of Residual Biomass and Effluents." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 110 (2016): 99-114.
13. Saswattecha, K., et al. "Options to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Palm Oil Production in Thailand." Journal of Cleaner Production 137 (2016): 370-393.


Source: Scopus
Last updated: 28 November 2016

Search for ARTICLE

Most cited articles


SIGN UP To JOPR MAILING LIST

Subscribe with us to get the latest information on Palm Oil Research from MPOB today!


Indexed /Reviewed by