UMMI KALSUM HASANAH MOHD NADZIM1; NUR HANIS HAYATI HAIROM1,2*; MUHAMMAD ADIB ABIDI1; ADEL ALI SAEED ABDUH ALGHEETI3; DILAELEYANA ABU BAKAR SIDIK4; RAIS HANIZAM MADON1; SOFIAH HAMZAH5,6; ALYZA AZZURA A. RAHMAN AZMI5,6 and ABDUL WAHAB MOHAMMAD7
Received: 3 October 2022 Accepted: 19 April 2023 Published Online: 18 July 2023
Due to the high organic load content, palm oil mill effluent (POME) has undergone various treatment systems. Most palm oil millers prefer to add a new approach to improve the existing treatment system but the investment and operation costs are too high to be incurred. Therefore, this study emphasizes the AB-101 microbial consortium performance in treating POME under the original operating parameters (0.2% AB-101 volume percentage, 7.5% molasses volume percentage and 100 ppm bio-activator dosage). The percentage reductions of POME characteristics under the original operating factor were 67.6% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 59.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 82.8% total suspended solids (TSS) and 66.7% oil and degrease (O&G). Meanwhile, POME treated with AB-101 under the optimal operating parameters (0.01% AB-101 volume percentage, 9.85% molasses volume percentage and 43.8 ppm bio-activator dosage) showed better characteristics of 92.9% BOD, 65.3% COD, 93.4% TSS and 95.5% O&G. Based on the proposed mechanism, lignocellulose degradation was greater when AB-101 was added into POME which improved the primary treatment of POME through enhanced anaerobic digestion.KEYWORDS:
1 Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia, Hab Pendidikan Tinggi Pagoh,
KM 1, Jalan Panchor, 84600 Muar, Johor, Malaysia.
2 Microelectronics and Nanotechnology - Shamsudin Research
Center, Institute for Integrated Engineering, Universiti Tun
Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat,
3 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti
Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat,
4 Centre for Diploma Studies, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
Malaysia, Hab Pendidikan Tinggi Pagoh, KM 1, Jalan Panchor,
84600 Muar, Johor, Malaysia.
5 Environmental Sustainable Material Research Interest Group,
Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatics,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus,
6 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia
Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia.
7 Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO),
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
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