Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 20 June  2008 June p.  461-469

Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of palm-based kojic acid ester

Author(s): NOOR HAYATI Khamaruddin * ; MAHIRAN Basri * ; GWENDOLINE EE Cheng Lian * ; ABU BAKAR Salleh ** ; RAJA NOR ZALIHA Raja A Rahman ** ; ARBAKARYA Ariff ** ; ROSFARIZAN Mohamad ** ; ROILA Awang +

Kojic acid ester wan synthesized from acyl donor (fatty acid/palm oil) and kojic acid by esterification using lipase as a biocatalyst in an organic medium. Analysis of the product using GC and FTIR showed the presence of kojic acid ester. The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis and 1H-NMR and 13C-MNR spectral data confirmed the molecular structure of the kojic acid ester.Among the enzymes tested, lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia gave the highest synthetic specific activity. Oleic acid found to be the best substrate with which to produce the ester in acetonitrile. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of kojic acid derivatives using Pseudomonas cepacia lipase were time, 24 hr, temperature, 50°C, amount of enzyme, 0.15 g, solvent of log P =-0.33, mole ration of 4 (kojic acid/oleic acid), with no added water, no control of water activity and oleic acid as substrate.

Keywords: , , , ,

Author Information
* Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

** Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

+ Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Cited By

1. Ashari, S. E., et al. "Optimization of Enzymatic Synthesis of Palm-Based Kojic Acid Ester using Response Surface Methodology." Journal of Oleo Science 58(10) (2009): 503-510.
2. El-Boulifi, N., et al. "Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of a Novel Hydroxyl-Fatty Acid Derivative of Kojic Acid." Enzyme and microbial technology 55 (2014): 128-32.
3. Jumbri, K., et al. "Optimisation and Characterisation of Lipase Catalysed Synthesis of a Kojic Monooleate Ester in a Solvent-Free System by Response Surface Methodology."PLoS ONE 10(12) (2015):e0144664.
4. Lajis, A. F. B., et al. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Kojic Acid Esters and their Potential Industrial Applications." Chemical Papers 67(6) (2013): 573-585.
5. Lajis, A. F. B., M. Hamid, and A. B. Ariff. "Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells." Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology (2012).
6. Liu, X., et al. "Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Kojic Acid Grafted Chitosan Oligosaccharide." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62(1) (2014): 297-303.
7. Radzi, S. M., et al. "High Yield Synthesis of Kojic Ester using Dual Enzymes System and their Antibacterial Activity." Key Engineering Materials Vol. 594-595 (2014): 632-369.
8. Zirak, M., and B. Eftekhari-Sis. "Kojic Acid in Organic Synthesis." Turkish Journal of Chemistry 39(3) (2015): 439-96.
9. Antonopoulou, I., et al. "Enzymatic Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds with High Potential for Cosmeceutical Application." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 100, No. 15 (2016):6519-6543, doi:10.1007/s00253-016-7647-9.

Source: Scopus
Last updated: 23 May 2017

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