Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol. 21  2009 Dec p.  675-682

Optimization of the epoxidation of methyl ester of palm fatty acid distillate

Author(s): LEE, P.L * ; WAN YUNUS, W.M.Z. * ; YEONG S.K. ** ; DZULKEFLY KUANG Abdullah * ; LIM Wen Hui **

Methyl ester of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD-ME) can be used for producing epoxide compounds. PFADME consists of 39.3% of oleic acid (C18:1) and has an iodine value of 49.2 g I2/100 g. It can be converted to a low oxirane content epoxide which can be used for several applications, such as plasticizers, polyols or alkanolamines, with appropriate modification. Temperature, mole ratio of hydrogen peroxide to unsaturation, and mole ratio of formic acid to unsaturation were optimized in the epoxidation of PFAD-ME. The study showed that more than 98% conversion of unsaturation to the epoxide ring moiety can be achieved within 3 hr of reaction by using the optimum molar ratio of 1:1:4 (unsaturation: formic acid: hydrogen peroxide) and a temperature of 50°C.

Keywords: , , ,

Author Information
* Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

** Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Cited By

1. Armylisasa, A. H. N., et al. "Modification of Olefinic Double Bonds of Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Other Vegetable Oil Derivatives Via Epoxidation: A Review." Grasas y Aceites, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2017, doi:10.3989/gya.0684161.
2. Borugadda, V. B., and V. V. Goud. "Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability of Structurally Modified Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters for Bio-Lubricant Application." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 112, 2016:4515-4524, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.046.
3. Chua, S. -., X. Xu, and Z. Guo. "Emerging Sustainable Technology for Epoxidation Directed Toward Plant Oil-Based Plasticizers." Process Biochemistry, Vol. 47, No. 10, 2012:1439-1451, doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2012.05.025.
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5. Hazmi, A. S. A., et al. "Rapid Evaluation of Plate Heat Exchanger Performance and Fouling Analysis in Epoxidation of Oleochemical at Pilot Plant Scale." International Journal of Heat and Technology, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2016:558-564, doi:10.18280/ijht.340402.
6. Meshram, P. D., R. G. Puri, and H. V. Patil. "Epoxidation of Wild Safflower (Carthamus Oxyacantha) Oil with Peroxy Acid in Presence of Strongly Acidic Cation Exchange Resin IR-122 as Catalyst." International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011:1152-1163.
7. Zeimaran, E., et al. "Synthesis and Characterization of Polyacids from Palm Acid Oil and Sunflower Oil Via Addition Reaction." Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Vol. 23, No. 24, 2013:6616-6619, doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.10.053.

Source: Scopus
Last Updated: 30 May 2017

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